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UPSC News Diary Today 22-09-2022

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UPSC News Diary Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

Hemkosh

 

Why in news?

Hemkosh dictionary becomes the first Braille dictionary to be introduced in South East Asia.

About Hemkosh

  •  Hemkosh was among the earliest Assamese dictionaries dating back to the 19th century.
  •  ‘Hemkosh’ was compiled by Late Hemchandra Baruah in the last part of 19th century.
  • Hemchandra Barua (1836 – 1897) was an eminent Assamese lexicographer, writer and social reformer.
  • Hem Chandra Barua was one of those few Assamese who fought for the reinstatement of Assamese as official language of Assam during the dark age of Assamese language.

 

Capripoxvirus Infections

 

Why in news?

Animal Husbandry Departments of several states speeding up vaccination of Goat pox to control lumpy skin disease.

About capripoxvirus infection

  • Epidemiologically the diseases of sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease differ, but all three viruses may be mechanically transmitted by biting insects, and control without vaccination is extremely difficult in endemic areas.
  • Sheeppox, goatpox, and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) are capripoxvirus infections of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively, and are easily recognizable by their characteristic clinical signs.

 

IBSA

 

Why in news?

India discussed cooperation under India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) in its’s ongoing Chairship and preparation for IBSA Trilateral Ministerial Commission Meeting on the sidelines of 77th United Nations General Assembly.

About IBSA

  • The IBSA is a trilateral, developmental initiative between India, Brazil and South Africa to promote South-South cooperation and exchange.
  • IBSA is a unique Forum which brings together three large democracies and major economies from three different continents, facing similar challenges.
  • All three countries are developing, pluralistic, multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-religious nations. The grouping was formalized and named the IBSA Dialogue Forum when the Foreign Ministers of the three countries met in Brasilia on 6 June 2003 and issued the Brasilia Declaration.

 

The National Programme on High-Efficiency Solar PV Modules

 

Why in news?

The Union Cabinet has approved the second tranche of Production Linked Incentive(PLI) Scheme on ‘National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’ for achieving manufacturing capacity of Giga Watt scale in High Efficiency Solar PV Modules.

Aim

  • The national programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules aims to build an ecosystem for manufacturing of high efficiency solar PV modules in India reducing import dependence in the area of Renewable Energy.
  • It will strengthen the Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative and generate employment.
  • The ‘National Programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’ targets direct employment to 30,000 people and indirect jobs to 1.2 lakh people.
  • The ‘National Programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’ targets an additional 10,000 MW of integrated domestic manufacturing capacity of high efficiency solar PV modules.

 

Triple-Dip La Nina

 

Triple-Dip La Nina: Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies I- Climate Change.

UPSC News Diary Today 22-09-2022 -_3.1

Triple-Dip La Nina: In News

Parts of the world are expected to experience severe weather for the rest of the year and into 2023, as part of a rare “triple dip La Nina” event, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

El Nino and La Nina

  • While El Nino, the more common expression, is the abnormal surface warming observed along the eastern and central regions of the Pacific Ocean (the region between Peru and Papua New Guinea).
  • The La Nina is an abnormal cooling of these surface waters.
  • Together, the El Nino (Warm Phase) and La Nina (Cool Phase) phenomena are termed as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
  • These are large-scale ocean phenomena which influence the global weather — winds, temperature and rainfall. They have the ability to trigger extreme weather events like droughts, floods, hot and cold conditions, globally.
  • Each cycle can last anywhere between 9 to 12 months, at times extendable to 18 months — and re-occur after every three to five years.
  • Meteorologists record the sea surface temperatures for four different regions, known as Nino regions, along this equatorial belt.
  • Depending on the temperatures, they forecast either as an El Nino, an ENSO neutral phase, or a La Nina.

 What is the “Triple-Dip” La Nina?

  • A “triple-dip” La Nina is a multiyear cooling of the surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which can cause droughts, fierce winds and heavy rainfall.
  • According to WMO, the current La Nina is projected to span three consecutive northern hemisphere winters. It began in September 2020.
  • If it continues for the next six months, it will be the first “triple-dip” La Nina event of the 21st century, WMO says.

How rare is this triple-dip?

  • It is exceptional to have three consecutive years with a La Nina event.
  • Its cooling influence is temporarily slowing the rise in global temperatures – but it will not halt or reverse the long-term warming trend.
  • La Nina’s are usually preceded by El Nino, a weather pattern that warms the surface of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.
  • However, an El Nino event did not occur before the current La Nina.

Triple-Dip La Nina: Earlier Instances

  • La Nina’s occurred several times between 1903 to 2010 and 2010 to 2012.
  • This would be the first “triple-dip” La Nina this century.
  • However, it is not unprecedented for the weather pattern to last more than nine months to a year, which is typical for a La Nina.

Triple-Dip La Nina: Impact

  • In the Indian context, La Nina is associated with good rainfall during the monsoon season.
  • This is the opposite of El Nino which is known to suppress monsoon rainfall.
  • Thus, a continued spell of La Nina could lead to expectation of another year of good, or normal, rainfall during the monsoon.
  • Until now, the monsoon season this year has produced 7% more rain compared to normal. Last year, the seasonal rainfall was almost 100%.
  • But, even though powerful, ENSO condition is only one of the several factors affecting monsoon rainfall in India.

Triple-Dip La Nina: Impact on rainfall

  • There is no one-on-one correlation between the ENSO condition and the amount of rainfall.
  • Also, the influence of ENSO is at a macro level.
  • There are wide variations in rainfall at the local level, which are getting exacerbated by climate change.

Differential impacts of this triple-dip event

  • The continuance of La Nina further into 2023 is not bad news from the Indian standpoint. But it is not the same for many other regions where La Nina has very different impacts.
  • In most parts of the United States, for example, La Nina is associated with very dry winters.
  • In Australia and Indonesia, and generally in the tropical region, La Nina is expected to bring more rainfall.
  • The excessive rainfall in Pakistan, which is experiencing its worst flooding disaster, can also be blamed in part on La Nina.
  • It said that the persistence of La Nina was most likely to result in a worsening of the drought in Africa.

Triple-Dip La Nina: Climate change link

  • Every unusual weather event these days is attributed to climate change, but science is not conclusive right now.
  • The occurrences of El Nino or La Nina are not very regular.
  • Sometimes they emerge every two years, at other times there has been a gap of even seven years.
  • Historical records do not go very far in the past.
  • As a result, the natural variability of ENSO is not understood very clearly.
  • And when the natural variability itself is not clear, the influence of global warming is difficult to quantify.
  • But there is clearer evidence of another kind of linkage with global warming.
  • During La Nina years, the colder surfaces allow the oceans to absorb more heat from the atmosphere.
  • Consequently, the air temperatures tend to go down, producing a cooling effect.

 

SC quota for Dalit Muslims and Christians

 

SC quota for Dalit Muslims and Christians- Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies II- Laws, Institutions & Bodies Constituted for The Vulnerable Sections.

In News

The Centre is likely to soon decide on setting up a national commission to study the social, economic and educational status of Dalits who converted to religions other than Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

  • Several petitions are pending before the Supreme Court seeking Scheduled Caste (SC) reservation benefits for Dalits who converted to Christianity or Islam.

Dalit and Quota Benefits

  • The original rationale behind giving reservation to Scheduled Castes was that these sections had suffered from the social evil of untouchability, which was practiced among Hindus.
  • Under Article 341 of the Constitution, the President may specify the castes, races or tribes or parts of or groups within castes, races or tribes which shall…be deemed to be Scheduled Castes.
  • The first order under this provision was issued in 1950 and covered only Hindus.
  • Following demands from the Sikh community, an order was issued in 1956, including Sikhs of Dalit origin among the beneficiaries of the SC quota.
  • In 1990, the government acceded to a similar demand from Buddhists of Dalit origin, and the order was revised to state: “No person who professes a religion different from the Hindu, the Sikh or the Buddhist religion shall be deemed to be a member of Scheduled Caste.”

Historical Background

  • After 1990, a number of Private Member’s Bills were brought in Parliament for this purpose.
  • In 1996, a government Bill called The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Orders (Amendment) Bill was drafted, but in view of a divergence of opinions, the Bill was not introduced in Parliament.
  • Then government headed by PM Manmohan Singh set up two important panels:
  • Ranganath Misra Commission: The National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities, popularly known as the Ranganath Misra Commission, in October 2004
  • Sachar Committee: A seven-member high-level committee headed by former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court Rajinder Sachar to study the social, economic, and educational condition of Muslims in March 2005.

Recommendation

  • The Sachar Committee Report observed that the social and economic situation of Dalit Muslims and Dalit Christians did not improve after conversion.
  • The Ranganath Misra Commission, which submitted its report in May 2007, recommended that SC status should be completely de-linked from religion and Scheduled Castes should be made fully religion-neutral like Scheduled Tribes.

Response to the recommendations

  • The report was tabled in Parliament in 2009, but its recommendation was not accepted in view of inadequate field data and corroboration with the actual situation on the ground.
  • Few studies, commissioned by the National Commission for Minorities, was also not considered reliable due to insufficient data.

Way Forward

  • Based on the recommendations of the Ranganath Misra Commission, there are some petitions pending before the Supreme Court, seeking reservation benefits for Christians and Muslims of Dalit origin.
  • In the last hearing, a three-judge Bench gave the Solicitor General of India three weeks’ time to present the stand of the Union government on the issue.
  • The next hearing is awaited.

 

PM PRANAM

 

PM PRANAM: Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies III- Issues Related to Farm Subsidies & MSP.

PM PRANAM: In News

In order to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers by incentivizing states, the Union government plans to introduce a new scheme – PM PRANAM, which stands for PM Promotion of Alternate Nutrients for Agriculture Management Yojana.

What is the PM PRANAM scheme?

  • The proposed scheme intends to reduce the subsidy burden on chemical fertilizers.
  • This burden if uneased, is expected to increase to Rs 2.25 lakh crore in 2022-2023, which is 39% higher than the previous year’s figure of Rs 1.62 lakh crore.
  • The scheme will not have a separate budget and will be financed by the “savings of existing fertilizer subsidy” under schemes run by the Department of fertilisers.

PM PRANAM: Subsidies

Further, 50% subsidy savings will be passed on as a grant to the state that saves the money and that 70% of the grant provided under the scheme can be used for asset creation related to technological adoption of alternate fertilizers.

  • It would create alternate fertilizer production units at village, block and district levels.
  • The remaining 30% grant money can be used for incentivizing farmers, panchayats, farmer producer organizations and self-help groups that are involved in the reduction of fertilizer use and awareness generation.
  • The government will compare a state’s increase or reduction in urea in a year, to its average consumption of urea during the last three years.

India’s fertilizer requirement

  • The kharif season (June-October) is critical for India’s food security, accounting for nearly half the year’s production of foodgrains, one-third of pulses and approximately two-thirds of oilseeds.
  • A sizable amount of fertilizer is required for this season.
  • The Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare assesses the requirement of fertilizers each year before the start of the cropping season, and informs the Ministry of Chemical and fertilizers to ensure the supply.
  • The amount of fertilizer required varies each month according to demand, which is based on the time of crop sowing, which also varies from region to region. For example, the demand for urea peaks during June-August period, but is relatively low in March and April, and the government uses these two months to prepare for an adequate amount of fertilizer for the kharif season.

PM PRANAM: Need

  • Due to increased demand for fertilizer in the country over the past 5 years, the overall expenditure by the government on subsidy has also increased.
  • The final figure of fertilizer subsidy touched Rs 1.62 lakh crore in 2021-22.
  • The total requirement of four fertilizers — Urea, DAP (Di-ammonium Phosphate), MOP (Muriate of potash), NPKS (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) — increased by 21% between 2017-2018 and 2021-2022, from 528.86 lakh metric tonnes (LMT) to 640.27 LMT.
  • PM PRANAM, which seeks to reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, will likely reduce the burden on the exchequer.
  • The proposed scheme is also in line with the government’s focus on promoting the balanced use of fertilizers or alternative fertilizers in the last few years.

 

SCALE App

 

SCALE App- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Indian Economy– Issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

UPSC News Diary Today 22-09-2022 -_4.1

 

SCALE App in News

  • Recently, Minister of Education and Skill Development Shri Dharmendra Pradhan launched the SCALE (Skill Certification Assessment for Leather Employees) app for skill development in leather sector at CSIR- Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai.

SCALE App

  • About: SCALE App is developed to provide a one-stop solution for the skilling, learning, assessment, and employment needs of the leather industry.
  • Design and Development: Leather Skill Sector Council developed Android App SCALE to change the way skill development programs are designed and delivered to the trainees in leather industry.
  • Importance: The SCALE studio App developed by Leather SSC allows people from all age groups interested in leather craft to access online live streamed classes from the state-of-the-art studio at its office.
    • The leather sector plays a major role in generating large-scale employment in the country with over 44 lakh people currently working.

Role of CSIR-CLRI

  • CSIR-CLRI is playing an important role in the development of this sector with a perfect blend of academics and skill development.
  • CLRI is also promoting entrepreneurship among the youth and is aiding in the setting up of many startup companies.
    • This will enable in realizing our national goals during the on-going Amrit Kaal leading to 100 years of Indian Independence.

Way Forward

  • Collaborative Approach: National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and CSIR-CLRI need to work together for addressing the skilling needs of the Leather sector.
    • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, NSDC, CLRI and Leather Sector Skill Council will collaborate to set up Common Facility and Skilling Centre across India, including Chennai.
  • Focus on Capacity Building: National level capacity building program can be held at CSIR-CLRI for augmenting the capacities of professionals working in the leader sector.
  • Use of Technology: young professionals in the leader sector need to leverage technology, innovation, entrepreneurship to become job-creators.
    • They must handhold craftsmen to connect them to opportunities available in the digital space including e-commerce.

Indian Footwear and Leather Development Programme (IFLDP)

 

IFSCA FinTech Incentive Scheme

 

IFSCA FinTech Incentive Scheme- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges
    • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

IFSCA FinTech Incentive Scheme in News

  • Recently, the IFSCA (FinTech Incentive) Scheme for providing financial support to FinTech activities in the form of specific grant(s) was launched by the International Financial Services Centres Authority ( “IFSCA”).
    • IFSCA aims to promote the establishment of a world-class FinTech Hub, at GIFT International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) in India.

IFSCA FinTech Incentive Scheme 2022- Eligible FinTechs

IFSCA FinTech Incentive Scheme shall be open to-

  • Domestic FinTechs-
    • Seeking access to overseas markets;
    • Seeking listing on IFSCA recognised stock exchanges;
    • Extending business to the IFSCs either by way of authorisation or registration or through the regulatory sandbox.
  • Foreign FinTechs:
    • Seeking market access to IFSCs in India and work within the Authority’s regulatory framework;
    • Seeking access to domestic market under Inter-Operable Regulatory Sandbox (IORS) framework;

Incentives under IFSCA FinTech Incentive Scheme

The types of incentives for eligible applicants are:

  • FinTech Start-up grant– This grant shall be utilized for developing a product or a service and related ‘go-to market’ initiatives for a start-up with a novel FinTech idea or solution with a focus on converting the idea into an MVP.
  • Proof of Concept (PoC) grant- This grant shall be utilized for the purpose of conducting a PoC by an early or mature FinTech Entity (FE) in domestic market or overseas.
  • Sandbox grant- This grant shall be utilized by FEs to experiment with innovative products or services in a sandbox.
  • Green FinTech Grant- This grant shall be utilized towards developing solutions facilitating sustainable finance and sustainability linked finance, including ‘Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)’ investments.
  • Accelerator Grant- This grant shall be utilized for supporting accelerators at the IFSC for capacity building, build capabilities around mentors, bringing investors, bringing more projects or PoC, tie ups, etc.
  • Listing Support Grant – The grant shall be utilized for supporting Domestic FE aspiring to go for listing on stock exchanges recognised by the Authority.

Criteria for Receiving Grants under FinTech Incentive Scheme

The Grants contemplated under the FinTech Incentive scheme shall be available to eligible FinTech Entities (Fes):

  • Who are part of the Authority’s Regulatory or Innovative Sandbox;
  • Which are referred to the Authority under a FinTech bridge arrangement with a Counterpart Regulator
  • Which have either participated or are participating in any Accelerator or Cohort or Special Programme supported or recognised by the Authority; or
  • Who are referred to by the entity(ies) including regulatory or supervisory bodies having Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) or collaboration or special arrangement with the Authority.

 

National Logistics Policy (NLP) 2022 Released

 

PLI Scheme for Solar Energy Sector

 

PLI Scheme for Solar Energy Sector- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges
    • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

PLI Scheme for Solar Energy Sector in News

  • Recently, the Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, has approved proposal for implementation of the Production Linked Incentive Scheme (Tranche II) on ‘National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’.
  • The proposal to implement PLI scheme on ‘National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’ was forwarded by the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy.

PLI Scheme on ‘National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules’

  • About: The national programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules aims to build an ecosystem for manufacturing of high efficiency solar PV modules in India.
  • Associated Ministry: National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules is being implemented under overall guidance and supervision of Ministry of New & Renewable Energy.
  • Funding: Under it, government has provided with an outlay of Rs.19,500 crore for achieving manufacturing capacity of Giga Watt (GW) scale in High Efficiency Solar PV Modules.
  • Selection Process and Tenure: Solar PV manufacturers will be selected through a transparent selection process.
    • PLI will be disbursed for 5 years post commissioning of solar PV manufacturing plants on sales of high efficiency solar PV modules from the domestic market will be incentivised.
  • Significance: national programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules will strengthen the Atamnirbhar Bharat initiative and generate employment.
    • National programme on High Efficiency Solar PV Modules will help in reducing country’s import dependence in the area of Renewable Energy.

Associated Benefits/Outcomes of PLI Scheme

The outcomes/benefits expected from the scheme are as follows:

  • It is estimated that about 65,000 MW per annum manufacturing capacity of fully and partially integrated, solar PV modules would be installed.
  • The scheme will bring direct investment of around Rs.94,000 crore.
  • Creation of manufacturing capacity for Balance of Materials like EVA, Solar glass, Backsheet, etc.
  • Direct employment of about 1,95,000 and indirect employment of around 7,80,000 persons.
  • Import substitution of approximately Rs.1.37 lakh crore.
  • Impetus to Research and Development to achieve higher efficiencies in Solar PV Modules.

 

India’s Largest Floating Solar Power Project Commissioned

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