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UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY (22 August, 2022) | DAY LONG CURRENT AFFAIRS DIGEST FOR UPSC

UPSC News Diary For Today” is every day published in the evening between 6-7 PM and contains all current affairs articles from the day on a single platform. ”UPSC News Diary For Today” covers various topics from UPSC Syllabus and is very helpful and time managing for UPSC Aspirants. The framing of this daily current affairs compilation article is easy to read and understandable also.

In the ”UPSC News Diary For Today” article, we focus on both UPSC Preliminary and Mains exam-oriented current affairs & prepare a gist of daily important news articles from leading National Newspapers, PIB, and other various official sources.

 

Hydrogen Fuel Cell

 

What is a hydrogen fuel cell?

  • The hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen and air to generate electricity, producing only heat and water in the process.
  • Hydrogen fuel cells like the one present in the bus produce electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
  • The two gases react across an electrochemical cell similar to a conventional battery cell to produce electricity, water and small amounts of heat. This electricity is then used by electric motors to propel the vehicle forward.
  • Fuel cells work in a similar manner to conventional batteries found in electric vehicles but they do not run out of charge and don’t need to be recharged with electricity.
  • They continue to produce electricity as long as there is a supply of hydrogen.
  • Just like conventional cells, a fuel cell consists of an anode (negative electrode) and cathode (positive electrode) sandwiched around an electrolyte.

 

Cloudburst

 

What are cloudbursts?

  • A cloudburst is a localised but intense rainfall activity. Short spells of very heavy rainfall over a small geographical area can cause widespread destruction, especially in hilly regions where this phenomenon is the most common.
  • Not all instances of very heavy rainfall, however, are cloudbursts.
  • A cloudburst has a very specific definition: Rainfall of 10 cm or more in an hour over a roughly 10 km x 10-km area is classified as a cloudburst event.
  • By this definition, 5 cm of rainfall in a half- hour period over the same area would also be categorized as a cloudburst.

 

Localization of Sustainable Development Goals (LSDGs)

 

Ministry of Panchayati Raj has adopted a thematic approach for Localization of Sustainable Development Goals (LSDGs) at the grassroots level through empowering Panchayats and other relevant stakeholders in Rural Areas. Following are the themes for Localization of Sustainable Development Goals:

•           Theme 1: Poverty Free and Enhanced Livelihoods in Village

•           Theme 2: Healthy Village

•           Theme 3: Child-Friendly Village

•           Theme 4: Water Sufficient Village

•           Theme 5: Clean and Green Village

•           Theme 6: Village with Self-Sufficient Infrastructure

•           Theme 7: Socially Secured and Socially Just Village

•           Theme 8: Village with Good Governance

•           Theme 9: Women Friendly Village

 

The Editorial Analysis- Making Bail Impossible

 

Making Bail Impossible- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes;
    • Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

 

UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY (22 August, 2022) | DAY LONG CURRENT AFFAIRS DIGEST FOR UPSC -_3.1

 

Making Bail Impossible in News

  • Recently, in Vijay Madanlal Choudhary v. Union of India case, the supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), is proof that the ghost of ADM Jabalpur has been resurrected.
  • The old maxim of bail being the norm and jail the exception has been judicially cremated with this decision. Bail is now not even an exception; it is impossible.

Concerning Bail Provisions under PMLA

  • Section 45 of the PMLA: To be eligible for bail, the arrested person must persuade the court that there are reasonable grounds for believing that he is not guilty of the money laundering offences brought by the Enforcement Directorate (ED).
    • The onus is on the accused to prove that an event did not transpire. If he cannot do this, he will continue to languish in jail.
  • Judicial Observation: To justify this high bar, the court overturned its decision in Nikesh Tarachand Shah v. Union of India (2017).
    • In above case, SC had directed treating the offence of ‘money laundering’ as less heinous and therefore differently a crime from ‘terrorism’ under the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA).
    • The court stated that the offence of money laundering was as heinous as a terrorist act and as great a danger to the sovereignty and integrity of our country.
  • Associated Concerns: SC ignored the fact that under the PMLA, money laundering also covers monies associated with offences relating to infringement of copyrights and trademarks, arts and antiquities, securities, information technology, companies, and air and water pollution.
  • Secrecy: The court also declared that the ED does not need to share the Enforcement Case Information Report (ECIR) with the accused.
    • This is bizarre because the same notion of secrecy is not applicable to equivalent documents (FIRs) for agencies like the police and the Central Bureau of Investigation.
    • The ECIR contains the rationale for the ED to register the offence. However, the court chose not to equate the ECIR with an FIR.

Conclusion

  • When someone is arrested for an offence under the PMLA, he will be placed in prolonged incarceration without being told the specifics of why this is so. And no court will ever be able to reasonably conclude that the person is entitled to bail under the law as it now stands.

 

PMLA and FEMA- Controlling Money Laundering

 

Possible Impact Of 1.5 o C Temperature Rise On India!

 

Impact Of 1.5 o C Temperature Rise On India: Introduction

  • Since the middle of the twentieth century, India has witnessed a rise in extreme temperature and rainfall events, droughts, and sea levels; and an increase in the intensity of severe cyclones, alongside other changes in the monsoon system, according to an assessment by the Union Ministry of Earth Sciences in June 2020.
  • If this is India’s situation when the Earth is 1.1o C hotter than in the pre-industrial period, then we can imagine the scenario when the global temperature rises by 1.5 o C.
  • According to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Assessment Report 6 of Working Group I, the world is on track to breach this temperature guardrail in the next 18 years.

Impact Of 1.5 o C Temperature Rise On India: How will Temperature Rise Impact India?

  • The repercussions of a 1.5oC global temperature rise would be catastrophic for India.
  • India could become 1.2o C warmer and receive almost 10 per cent more rainfall every year.
  • Ladakh is likely to be the worst hit at 2.23o C warmer than pre-industrial levels.
  • Annual mean temperatures may rise in five other Himalayan states—Jammu and Kashmir (1.76o C), Himachal Pradesh (1.73o C), Uttarakhand (1.62o C), Sikkim (1.55o C) and Arunachal Pradesh (1.47o C). The temperature rise is most likely to trigger the rapid melting of glaciers and pre-cipitation change.
  • Rajasthan could receive 23 per cent more rainfall.

 

UPSC NEWS DIARY FOR TODAY (22 August, 2022) | DAY LONG CURRENT AFFAIRS DIGEST FOR UPSC -_4.1

 

Impact Of 1.5 o C Temperature Rise On India: More Days Of Heatwaves

  • The warmer temperatures may translate into an increase in the number of days of heatwaves.
  • Rajasthan could record 13 additional days with temperatures beyond 40o C, followed by Delhi, Gujarat (12 additional days each), Telangana (10 additional days) and Andhra Pradesh (8 additional days).
  • The India Meteorological Department considers a non-hilly region for the declaration of a heatwave when the temperature crosses 40o.

Impact Of 1.5 o C Temperature Rise On India: Low Jet Streams Moving Northward!

  • The low-level jet stream winds, responsible for the monsoon rains, have been moving northwards over the past three decades. This is the reason rainfall levels in Kerala have decreased over time.
  • The northward or poleward shift of the low-level jet stream has been identified as major impacts (sic) of global warming on large-scale atmospheric dynamics.
  • Consistent movement in the jet stream has led to a drying trend in the southern part of the Western coast of India.
  • It has also led to a wetter monsoon season in the upper parts of the Western coast in the last three decades.

 

‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State & UT

 

‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State & UT- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges– Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State & UT in News

  • Recently, Goa and Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu (D&NH and D&D) become the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ certified State and UT in the country respectively.

First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State & UT

  • In Goa and Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu (D&NH and D&D), people from all the villages have declared their village as ‘Har Ghar Jal’ through a resolution passed by Gram Sabha.
  • Through these resolutions, Gram Sabhas certified that all households in the villages have access to safe drinking water through taps, ensuring that ‘No One is Left Out’.
  • All 2.63 lakh rural households of Goa & 85,156 of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu have access to potable water through tap connection.
  • All schools, anganwadi centres, public institutions including Gram Panchayat buildings, healthcare centres, community centres, ashramshalas, and other government offices have now access to potable water through tap connection.

‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certification Process

  • Certification Process: The process of certification has been detailed out in the Margdarshika of Jal Jeevan Mission.
    • According to Margdarshika, first of all, the field engineer submits a completion certificate regarding water supply scheme to the Panchayat during Gram Sabha meeting.
    • The villages confirm through a resolution of the Gram Sabha, that every household is getting regular supply of water of prescribed quality and not a single household is left out.
    • They also confirm that all schools, anganwadi centers and other public institutions also getting tap water.
  • Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC) or paani samiti: It has been constituted in all the 378 villages of Goa and 96 villages of D&NH and D&D.
    • VWSC is responsible for operation, maintenance and repair of water supply infrastructure developed under ‘Har Ghar Jal’ programme.
    • This sub-committee of Gram Panchayat also has the responsibility to collect user charge which will be deposited in the bank account.
    • These user charges shall be used to pay honorarium of the pump operator and carry out minor repair work from time-to-time.
  • Water Quality: it is an important aspect of the mission and to ensure the same, at least five women in every village are trained to carry out water testing.
    • Today more than 10 lakh women in the country have been trained to use Field Test Kits (FTKs) for testing the quality of water supplied in rural households.
    • More than 57 lakh water samples have been tested by these women using Field Testing Kits (FTKs).

Jal Jeevan Mission 

  • About: Jal Jeevan Mission is a flagship programme of Government of India which was announced from the ramparts of Red Fort by Prime Minister on August 15, 2019.
  • Mandate: The Jal Jeevan mission aims to make provision of potable tap water supply in adequate quantity, of prescribed quality and on regular & long-term basis to every rural household of the country by 2024.
  • Implementation: The program is implemented by Government of India in partnership with States/UTs.
  • Performance: more than 52% rural households in the country are now connected with tap water which was only 17% at the time of launch of Jal Jeevan mission on August 15, 2019.
  • Funding: Rs 60,000 Crore has been allocated in the current financial year under the Union Budget 2022 for the ‘Har Ghar Jal’ under Jal Jeevan Mission.

 

Jal Jeevan Mission | Har Ghar Jal by 2024

 

Nepal Citizenship Law

 

Nepal Citizenship Law-Relevance for UPSC Exam

General Studies II- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

In News

Nepal President Bidhya Devi Bhandari sent back the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2006 to the Pratinidhi Sabha (House of Representatives), the lower house of the Nepal Parliament, urging the members to reconsider the Act.

What is the issue of citizenship in Nepal about?

  • Nepal transitioned into a democracy beginning with the fall of the monarchy in 2006 and the subsequent election of the Maoist government in 2008.
  • The emergence of the multiparty system was followed by the adoption of a constitution on September 20, 2015.
  • All Nepalese citizens born before this date got naturalized citizenship but their children remained without citizenship as that was to be guided by a federal law which has not yet been framed.
  • This amendment Act is expected to pave the way to citizenship for many such stateless youth as well as their parents.

What are the issues with the Act?

  • The main criticism against the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2006 is that it goes against established parameters of gender justice.
  • A cursory reading also reveals contradictions among various sections of the law.
  • According to Article 11(2b), a person born to a father or a mother with Nepalese citizenship can get citizenship by descent.
  • Article 11(5) of the constitution says a person who is born to a Nepalese mother (who has lived in the country) and an unidentified father will also get citizenship by descent but this section appears humiliating for a mother as she has to declare that her husband is unidentified for the child to be eligible for citizenship.
  • In case of a Nepalese father, such declarations are not required.
  • Article 11(7) which says that a child born to a Nepalese mother and a father holding a foreign citizenship can get “naturalized citizenship” in accordance with the laws of Nepal appears to contradict Article 11(2b).
  • It places a condition of permanent residency on the mother (and the child) which will determine the grant of citizenship for the child.

Why has the amendment been framed?

  • There is an unarticulated concern in the orthodox sections of the country that as Nepalese men, particularly from the Terai region, continue to marry women from northern India, Nepalese identity would be undermined because of this “Beti-Roti” (Nepalese men marrying Indian women) issue, many women could not become citizens of Nepal as they were subjected to the infamous seven-year cooling off period before they could apply for citizenship in Nepal.
  • As such women were stateless, children of such families were also often found to be without Nepalese citizenship.
  • The new amendments have done away with the cooling off period for these stateless women.
  • This will benefit the children of such families where the mother and children remained stateless for years.

What is the road ahead for the Act?

  • Nepal Citizenship Struggle Committee held a protest in Kathmandu demanding that President Bhandari should ratify the Act that was passed again by the Pratinidhi Sabha for the second time. They argue that women of Indian origin, who were deprived of rights because of the cooling off period and bureaucratic procrastination, and their children will be stuck in a stateless condition if the Act is not recognised by the President’s office.

 

West Nile virus

 

West Nile virus- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to- Health.

West Nile Virus in News

  • Recently, the New York City Health Department announced that the West Nile virus had been detected in two people, one in Brooklyn and another in Queens, as well as in a “record number” of infected mosquitoes throughout the city.
  • A total of 54 cases and four deaths have been reported throughout the country this year, according to the health department’s announcement.

PolioVirus: Polio found in London, New York and Jerusalem

Key Facts about West Nile virus

  • About: The West Nile virus is spread through a bite from an infected mosquito and can infect humans, birds and other mammals.
  • Host and Carrier: Birds are the main host of the virus and mosquitoes become infected by biting birds, according to the CDC.
    • West Nile virus cannot be spread from person to person through casual contact.
  • Symptoms: Most people who are infected by West Nile virus do not develop any symptoms or may experience mild to moderate illness.
    • According to CDC, about 1 in 5 develop a fever, along with other symptoms like headaches, body aches, joint pains, diarrhea, vomiting or a rash.
    • About 1 in 150 people infected develop severe illness affecting the central nervous system.
    • Symptoms include high fever, headaches, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, vision loss or paralysis.
  • Diagnosis: A blood test can be conducted to determine a West Nile infection.
  • Treatment: There are no vaccines or medicines that specifically treat West Nile virus infections.
    • Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to help with some symptoms and hospitalization may be necessary for more severe cases.
  • Recovery: Recovery from a severe case of West Nile can take anywhere from several weeks to months, but central nervous system damage can be permanent.

West Nile Virus- Measures to Reduce Infections

  • Using Insect Repellents: The New York City Health Department suggests using approved insect repellents that contain picaridin, which can be applied directly on skin and clothing.
  • Limiting Outdoor Activities: Mosquitoes are most active from April to October, so limiting outdoor activities during those seasons particularly at dawn and dusk can also reduce the risk of contracting the virus.
    • When outdoors, wear protective clothing during the evenings.
    • During the day, avoid dark-colored clothing, shaded areas where mosquitoes lay eggs, and any perfumes, colognes and scented body lotions.
  • Eliminating Mosquito Breeding Areas: People and government officials must actively eliminate mosquito breeding areas such as areas with standing water where they can breed.

 

WHO Declares Monkeypox a Public Health Emergency

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