Today’s Important Prelims Bits 18-05-2022
In News: upcoming G-7 summit (June 26-28) will be held in Germany and is likely to be attended by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
About G7 Countries
- The G7 (Group of Seven) is an organisation of the world’s seven largest so-called “advanced” economies, which dominate global trade and the international financial system. They are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the United States.
- Russia joined in 1998, creating the G8, but was excluded in 2014 for its takeover of Crimea.
- China has never been a member, despite its large economy and having the world’s biggest population.
- The annual G7 summits have over the years developed into a platform for determining the course of multilateral discourse and shaping political responses to global challenges.
- Germany took over the G7 presidency in January 2022, which means it will host the organisation’s annual summit in June.
- The EU is not a member of the G7 but attends the annual summit.
Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021
In News: Senior Congress leader Jairam Ramesh has expressed concern over the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021
About Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021
- In December 2021, the Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021 was introduced in Lok Sabha, and was subsequently referred to a Joint Parliamentary Committee.
- The Bill seeks to amend the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 to: (i) encourage the Indian system of medicine and cultivation of wild medicinal plants, (ii) facilitate fast-tracking of processes for research, patent application, and transfer of research results, (iii) decriminalise offences, and (iv) encourage foreign investment in the sector.
- The Bill also amends the Act to include references to the Nagoya Protocol.
- The Ministry is drawing a distinction between a registered AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy) practitioner and a company, and exempting the former from the Act.
About National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)
- The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established by the Central Government in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002).
- The NBA is a Statutory Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory functions for the Government of India on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.
Supreme Court Collegium
In News: The Supreme Court Collegium headed by Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana has recommended the elevation of five judges as the Chief Justices of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gauhati, and Telangana High Courts.
About Collegium System
- It is a system under which appointments and transfers of judges are decided by a forum of the Chief Justice of India and the four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. It has no place in the Indian Constitution.
- The Collegium of the Supreme Court consists of 5 senior most Judges including the Chief Justice of India.
- They will consider the elevation of Chief Justices/Judges of High Court to Supreme Court, elevation of Judges of High Courts as Chief Justices and elevation of Judges.
- In case of difference of opinion, the majority view will prevail.
- Since Constitution mandates consultation with the Chief Justice of India is necessary for appointments to judiciary, the collegium model evovled.
- Article 124 and 217 deal with the appointment of Supreme Court and High Court judges respectively.
In News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday inaugurated the country’s first 5G testbed.
About 5G testbed
- A 5G testbed will help companies test machine-to-machine 5G communication before rolling out their products commercially.
- In a testbed environment, a new 5G product tests how its network connectivity is performing in various real-world scenarios
- It will enable start-ups and industry players to test their products locally, thereby reducing dependence on facilities outside the country.
- 5G testbed had been set up at a cost of about ₹220 crore