UPSC Exam   »   Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)   »   Spot-billed Pelican

Spot-billed Pelican

Spot-billed Pelican- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 3: Environment- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

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Spot-billed Pelican- Context

  • Recently, a nematode infestation has led to mass mortality of spot-billed pelicans (Pelicanus philippensis) at Telineelapuram Important Bird Area (IBA).
    • Telineelapuram Important Bird Area (IBA) is located in the Naupada swamp of Srikakulam district in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Over 150 spot-billed pelicans have succumbed to the infestation since December, according to Forest officials.


Spot-billed Pelican- Reasons for Mass mortality

  • Nematode infestation was found as the cause of mortality in the Wildlife Institute of India for the recent mass mortality.
  • Nematodes are microscopic eel-like roundworms. These parasites are suspected to be transferred through fish and snails.
  • The nematode infestation would not spread from one species to another species as per the studies carried out by the experts in the Karnataka state.

List of Bird Sanctuaries in India


Spot-billed Pelican- Key Points

  • About: Spot-billed Pelican, a member of the pelican family, is a large pale waterbird with a hefty pinkish pouched bill marked with dark spots on the upper mandible.
    • Scientific name: Spot-billed Pelican’s scientific name is Pelicanus philippensis.
  • Breeding Regions: Spot-billed Pelican birds are found to breed only in peninsular India, Sri Lanka and Cambodia.
    • Spot-billed Pelican birds are also recorded in Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam in the non-breeding seasons.
  • Habitat: Spot-billed Pelican is a bird of large inland and coastal waters, especially large lakes. shallow lowland freshwaters are the preferential habitation zone of Spot-billed Pelicans.
  • Protection Status of Spot-billed Pelican:
    • IUCN List: Near Threatened
    • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Spot-billed Pelican birds are listed under Schedule IV of the WPA 1971.
      • Under schedule IV, hunting is prohibited but the penalty for any violation is less compared to the first two schedules.
    • Threats to Survival: Survival of Spot-billed Pelican birds is threatened by habitation loss due to deforestation, hunting, and pollution by organochlorine pesticides.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)

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