Samagra Shiksha Scheme_00.1
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Samagra Shiksha Scheme

Context

  • The central government has launched National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy (NIPUN Bharat) scheme under its flagship scheme- Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan.
  • Aim of NIPUN initiative: to create an enabling environment to ensure the universal acquisition of foundational literacy and numeracy, by the end of Grade 3, by 2026-27.

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About Samagra Shiksha

  • It is an overarching program for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12 with the goal of improving school effectiveness-measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes.
  • Integration: of three erstwhile schemes-
    1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
    2. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and
    3. Teacher Education (TE)
  • It aims to improve the quality of school education by focusing on the two T’s – Teacher and Technology.
  • Vision: to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education from pre-school to the senior secondary stage in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for Education (SDG 4).
  • Implementing mechanism: the department of school education and literacy is the nodal agency for implementation.
    • State/UT level: Implementation through a single State Implementation Society (SIS). States would be expected to bring a single Plan for the entire school education sector.
    • Union level:
      • Governing Council headed by Minister of Human Resource Development: empowered to modify financial and programmatic norms and approve the detailed guidelines for implementation within the overall framework of the scheme.
      • Project Approval Board (PAB) headed by Secretary, Department of School Education and Literacy.
  • Funding pattern: it is a centrally sponsored scheme.
    • 90:10 for 8 North-Eastern States (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura) and 3 Himalayan States (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand).
    • 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature.
    • It is 100% centrally sponsored for Union Territories without Legislature.

Samagra Shiksha Scheme_50.1

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Important features of the scheme: it focuses on-

  • Administrative reform: harmonized implementation through Single and unified administrative structure and flexibility to states to prioritize their interventions under the scheme.
  • Quality Education through:
    • Capacity Building of Teachers and School Heads
    • Improving the quality of prospective teachers: by strengthening Teacher Education Institutions like SCERTs and DIETs.
    • Support for Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan: to promote Science and Maths learning in schools.
    • Support Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat Programme: to develop foundational skills at the primary level.
  • Digital Education
    • Support ‘Operation Digital Board’ in all secondary schools over a period of 5 years.
    • Enhanced use of digital technology in education through smart classrooms, digital boards, and DTH channels.
    • Digital initiatives like UDISE+, Shagun, to be strengthened.
  • Strengthening of Schools
    • Transport facility to children across all classes from I to VIII.
    • Supports ‘Swachh Vidyalaya’: for ensuring cleanliness.
    • Improve the Quality of Infrastructure in Government Schools
  • Girl Education
    • Upgradation of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) from Class 6-8 to Class 6-12.
    • Self-defense training for girls from upper primary to the senior secondary stage
    • Enhanced Commitment to ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’
  • Skill Development
    • Exposure to Vocational Skills at Upper Primary Level would be extended.
    • Vocational education for Class 9-12 as integrated with the curriculum and to be made more practical and industry oriented.
    • Reinforce emphasis on ‘Kaushal Vikas’
  • Sports Education to be an integral part of the curriculum: allocation for buying sports equipment, aims to inculcate and emphasize the relevance of sports.
  • Regional Balance
    • Preference to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWE affected districts, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas, and the 117 aspirational districts identified by Niti Aayog.

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Expected benefits of the scheme:

  • Improve the transition rates across the various levels of school education and aid in promoting universal access to children to complete school education.
  • Integration of Teacher Education: would facilitate effective convergence and linkages between different support structures in school education through interventions such as a unified training calendar, innovations in pedagogy, mentoring and monitoring, etc. 
  • Need-focused and dynamic in-service program: this will be conducted and monitored by the SCERT (nodal agency) under the scheme.
  • Use of technology: This would help in widening the access of good quality education across all States and UTs and across all sections of the Society.

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