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Minsk Agreements and the Russia-Ukraine Conflict

Russia-Ukraine Conflict- Relevance for UPSC Exam

  • GS Paper 2: International Relations- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests.

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Minsk Agreements and the Russia-Ukraine Conflict- Context

  • US authorities warned Russia not to invade Ukraine and urged both countries to return to Minsk agreements designed to end a separatist war by Russian speakers in eastern Ukraine.
  • Minsk Agreements to end the Russia-Ukraine crisis were signed in Minsk in 2014 and 2015.

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Russia-Ukraine Conflict- Minsk I Agreement

  • About: Ukraine and the Russian-backed separatists agreed on a 12-point ceasefire deal in the Belarusian capital Minsk in September 2014.
  • Key Provisions: Five months into the Ukraine conflict had killed more than 2,600 people when Minsk I Agreement was signed. A few key provisions are listed below-
    • Prisoner exchanges,
    • Deliveries of Humanitarian Aid and
    • Withdrawal of Heavy Weapons
  • Outcome: The Minsk I agreement did not last long as both sides violated different provisions of the Agreement.

Analysis of Sansad TV Discussion: ”Impact of Russia-Ukraine Crisis on India”


Minsk Agreements and the Russia-Ukraine Conflict- Minsk II Agreement

  • About: Minsk II Agreement is a 13points agreement signed in 2015.
  • Parties Involved: It was signed among representatives of Russia, Ukraine, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the leaders of two pro-Russian separatist regions.
    • The leaders of France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine, gathered in Minsk at the same time, issued a declaration of support for the deal.
  • Key Provisions: It set out military and political steps that remain unimplemented. A major blockage has been Russia’s insistence that it is not a party to the conflict and therefore is not bound by its terms. The 13 points, in brief, are listed below-
    • An immediate and comprehensive ceasefire.
    • Withdrawal of all heavy weapons by both sides.
    • Monitoring and verification by the OSCE.
    • To start a dialogue on interim self-government for the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, in accordance with Ukrainian law, and acknowledge their special status by parliamentary resolution.
    • A pardon and amnesty for people involved in the fighting.
    • An exchange of hostages and prisoners.
    • Provision of humanitarian assistance.
    • Resumption of socio-economic ties, including pensions.
    • Restoration of full control of the state border by the government of Ukraine.
    • Withdrawal of all foreign armed formations, military equipment, and mercenaries.
    • Constitutional reform in Ukraine including decentralization, with specific mention of Donetsk and Luhansk.
    • Elections in Donetsk and Luhansk on terms to be agreed with their representatives.
    • Intensifying the work of a Trilateral Contact Group comprising representatives of Russia, Ukraine, and the OSCE.


Russia-Ukraine Tensions | UNSC Meeting on Ukraine

Russia-Ukraine Tensions | UNSC Meeting on Ukraine

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