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Kunming declaration


Kunming declaration: Relevance

  • GS 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.


Kunming declaration: Context

  • Recently, more than 100 countries adopted the Kunming declaration at the ongoing 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15 biodivesity) to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UN CBD) in China.
  • Kunming declaration countries= more than 100 countries.


Right to Clean Environment


Kunming Declaration on Biodiversity: Key points

  • The theme of the declaration is Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth.
  • The adoption of the declaration will create momentum for a new global biodiversity pact.
  • It calls for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity considerations in all sectors of the global economy.
  • Putting biodiversity on a path to recovery is a defining challenge of this decade, in the context of the UN Decade of Action for Sustainable Development, the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration and the UN Decade for Ocean Science for Sustainable Development.
  • It requires strong political momentum to develop, adopt and implement an ambitious and transformative post-2020 global biodiversity framework that promotes the three objectives of the Convention in a balanced manner.


Kunming declaration_3.1


Kunming declaration commitments

  • Ensure that biodiversity is put on a path to recovery by 2030 at the latest, towards the full realization of the 2050 Vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”;
  • Support the development and adoption of an effective post-2020 implementation plan for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety;
  • Work across respective governments to continue to promote the integration, or mainstreaming of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity into decision-making.
  • Accelerate and strengthen the development and update of the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans.
  • Strengthen sustainable use of biodiversity for meeting the needs of people.


Draft Extended Producer Responsibility Framework


Target 30 by 30

  • The declaration also referred to the ’30 by 30′ target—a key proposal being debated at the COP15 that would affect 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans protected status by 2030.


Graded Action Response Plan


Kunming Biodiversity Fund (COP15 Kunming 2021)

  • China has pledged to inject USD 233 million into a new fund called Kunming Biodiversity Fund to protect biodiversity in developing countries.
  • Though, it is the right step in this direction. However, some countries have reservations regarding this fund.
    • Some countries have referred it as “a drop in the bucket” given that China is the world’s biggest polluter.
    • Some country is also of the opinion that a new fund for conservation is unnecessary as the United Nations’ Global Environment Facility (UN GEF) already helps developing nations finance green projects.

India Plastic Pact


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