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Geological Timescale of Earth-Tabular Form





-Origin of Earth around 4.5 billion years ago

-Rich in Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen but Oxygen was absent

-Origin of life in the form of Anaerobic respiration and unicellular bacteria.

-Around 2500 million years ago Blue-Green Algae originated.

-Formation of Aravalli Mountain Range.









CAMBRIAN -Invertebrates were present.

-No lifeform on Earth.

ORDOVICIAN -First Fish originated on Earth.



-First vascular plants.




-Considered as Age of the Fishes

-According to Indian mythology, Matsya (Sanskrit: मत्स्य, lit. fish) the fish avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu often described as the first of Vishnu’s ten primary avatars is described to have rescued the first man, Manu, from a great deluge.




-Vegetation went below water and thus the formation of Coal began in this period.

-Breaking of Pangea into Laurasia and Gondwana about 200 million years ago.

PERMIAN -Reptiles diversity





(Laurasia and Gondwana land further broke into continents that eventually led to the current world scenario)

TRIASSIC -Presence of Frogs and Turtles.
JURASSIC -Known as Age of Dinosaurs.




-Known for Meteor collisions that created depression and thus led to large scale volcanic eruptions.

-Extinction of Dinosaurs.

-Formation of Basaltic Volcanic Plateau

Example- Deccan lave plateau, Siberian plateau, Columbian plateau.







-Known for Alpine Orogeny which led to the formation of Young Fold Mountains in the world.

-Ancestors of Humans-APE, flowering plant and trees came into existence.

-Presence of mammals.

QUATERNARY -Modern man evolved (Homo Sapiens)



  • In last 2000 years, modern human beings have dominated and hence, have caused widescale modification of climate by deforestation, agriculture activities, changing land use pattern and burning of fossil fuels. These last 2000 years are thus known as ANTHROPOCENE ERA.

Meghalayan Age

  • Geologists have recently classified the last 4,200 years as being a distinct age in the story of our planet and have named it as the Meghalayan age.
  • We currently live in what is called the Holocene Epoch, which reflects everything that has happened over the past 11,700 years – since a dramatic warming kicked us out of the last ice age.
  • The Meghalayan, the youngest stage, runs from 4,200 years ago to the present.
  • It began with a destructive drought, whose effects lasted two centuries, and severely disrupted civilizations in Egypt, Greece, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and the Yangtze River Valley that was likely triggered by shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation.
  • The Meghalayan Age is unique among the many intervals of the geologic timescale as its beginning coincides with a global cultural event produced by a global climatic event.





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