Dengue- Relevance for UPSC Exam
- GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health.
- According to a civic report, the Capital city of Delhi reported 1,171 cases of dengue and three deaths over the past week.
- While the fatality toll for the season has reached nine, the caseload stands at 2,708 — the highest since 2017.
Dengue- Key Points
- About Dengue Fever: Dengue is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus (Genus Flavivirus).
- Transmission: Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, mainly by female Aedes aegypti.
- About Aedes aegypti: Aedes is a daytime feeder and can fly up to a limited distance of 400 meters. Dengue mosquitoes can’t breed once the temperature falls below 16 degrees.
- It is also responsible for the transmission of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika infection.
- Seasonal Pattern: Every year, from July to November, an upsurge in cases of dengue have been observed.
- The disease has a seasonal pattern, i.e., the peak comes after the monsoon and it is not uniformly distributed throughout the year.
Dengue- Tests are used to detect dengue
- ELISA Test: IgM and IgG test for dengue antibodies detected in an initial blood sample, meaning that it is likely that the person became infected with dengue virus within recent weeks.
- This test is normally done after 3-7 days of fever.
- IgM and IgG antibodies test and NS1 antigen test. Both are done through ELISA kits and hence are popularly known as Elisa test.
- NS1 Antigen test: It is a test for dengue, which allows rapid detection on the first day of fever before antibodies appear.
Dengue- Common Symptoms
- The onset of dengue fever is usually a sudden rise in temperature lasting 2-7 days and commonly associated with headache, flushing, retro-orbital pain and/or rash, myalgia, weakness, rash and itching.
- Severe Dengue: In extreme cases, the disease can develop into severe dengue (dengue hemorrhagic fever) that causes bleeding, low levels of blood platelets, and blood plasma leakage.
- Mild dengue infection: It may be treated symptomatically. Fever and body aches are best treated with paracetamol.
- Salicylates and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided as these may predispose to mucosal bleeds.
- The patient should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids.
- Severe Dengue Infection: Patient should be admitted to hospital in the care of specialists when following symptoms appear-
- Abdominal pain or persistent tenderness vomiting,
- Fluid accumulation in pleural cavity, abdomen, or subcutaneous tissues,
- Mucosal bleeds,
- Lethargy, restlessness or irritability,
- Liver enlargement >2 cm,
- Progressive increase in haematocrit with a concurrent decrease in platelet count.
- Home Remedy: Home remedies popularly used to treat dengue fever are papaya leaves, drinking adequate water, neem leaves, basil leaves tea (tulsi), coriander leaves, pomegranate juice, wheatgrass juice.