Daily Current Affairs for UPSC
Daily Current Affairs for UPSC: Daily Current Affairs for UPSC article covers important articles of the day which is important for various competitive exams like UPSC, State PCS, SSC and various Bank Exams.
Small Modular Reactors (SMR)
Small Modular Reactors (SMR) in News
- Recently, Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology, Dr Jitendra Singh said, that India is taking steps for development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR), with up to 300 MW capacity to fulfill its commitment to Clean Energy transition.
What are Small Modular Reactors (SMR)?
- Small Modular Reactors (SMR), with up to 300 MW capacity by nature are flexible in design and require smaller footprint.
- Being mobile and agile technology, SMR can be factory-built unlike the conventional nuclear reactors that are built on–site.
- Thus, SMRs offers significant savings in cost and construction time.
- SMR is a promising technology in industrial de-carbonization especially where there is a requirement of reliable and continuous supply of power.
- It is said that SMR is simpler and safer as compared to large nuclear plants.
Need for Small Modular Reactors (SMR) development
- The exploration of new clean energy options like SMR is in tune with India’s roadmap for clean energy transition through bold climate commitments which are reflected in our updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
- India has already taken steps for clean energy transition with penetration of non-fossil based energy resources and achieving net-zero by 2070, nuclear in terms of base load power can play a big role in the de-carbonization strategy.
- It is in this context that the role of nuclear energy will be critical for clean energy transition of not just India but for the entire world.
- India, comprising 17% of the world population has seen its primary energy growing at rate of 4% during the last decade, almost double the global growth rate of 1.3%.
- However, by historical standards, our share in global emissions is less than 5%.
Steps to boost Small Modular Reactors (SMR) development
- The participation of private sector and Start-ups needs to be explored in development of this critical technology within India.
- Technology sharing and availability of funding are the two crucial links for ensuring commercial availability of SMR technology.
Exercise “AUSTRA HIND 22”
Ex “AUSTRA HIND 22” in News
- The bilateral training exercise “AUSTRA HIND 22” between contingents of the Indian Army and the Australian Army is scheduled to take place at Mahajan Field Firing Ranges (Rajasthan) from 28 November to 11 December 2022.
Ex “AUSTRA HIND 22”
- About: Ex “AUSTRA HIND 22” is the first exercise in the series of AUSTRA HIND with participation of all arms and services contingent from both armies.
- Exercise “AUSTRA HIND” will be a yearly event that will be conducted alternatively in India and Australia.
- Participation: The Australian Army contingent comprising soldiers from the 13th Brigade of the 2nd Division has arrived at the exercise location.
- The Indian Army is represented by troops from the DOGRA Regiment.
- Mandate: Exercise “AUSTRA HIND” aims to build positive military relations, imbibe each other’s best practices and promote the ability to operate together while undertaking multi-domain operations in Semi deserts terrain under a UN peace enforcement mandate.
Significance of Ex “AUSTRA HIND 22”
- The joint exercise, besides promoting understanding and interoperability between the two armies, will further help in strengthening ties between India and Australia.
- “AUSTRA HIND 22” joint exercise will enable the two armies to share best practices in tactics, techniques and procedures for conducting tactical operations at Company and Platoon level for neutralising hostile threats.
Key Events under “AUSTRA HIND 22”
- During the exercise, participants will engage in a variety of tasks ranging from joint planning, joint tactical drills, sharing basics of special arms skills and raiding a hostile target.
- Training on new generation equipment and specialist weapons including snipers, surveillance & communication equipment to achieve a high degree of situational awareness apart from casualty management, casualty evacuation and planning logistics at Battalion / Company level are also planned.
Earth Observation Satellite-6 (EOS-6)
Earth Observation Satellite-6 (EOS-6) in News
- The third generation Indian satellite for monitoring the oceans, formally named as Earth Observation Satellite-6 (EOS-6) was launched by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
- Earth Observation Satellite-6 (EOS-6) was launched by ISRO in partnership with Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) among others, from its First Launch Pad (FLP) at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota.
Earth Observation Satellite-6 (EOS-6)
- The ocean observing mission is a follow up to OceanSat-1 or IRS-P4 and OceanSat-2 launched in 1999 and 2009, respectively.
- The EOS-06 satellite was launched aboard the proven launch vehicle PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) on its 56th flight (24th flight of the PSLV-XL version).
- Earth Observation Satellite-6 (EOS-6) three ocean observing sensors viz
- Ocean Color Monitor (OCM-3),
- Sea Surface Temperature Monitor (SSTM), and
- Ku-Band scatterometer (SCAT-3).
- There is also an ARGOS payload.
- All these sensors have their own importance for India’s blue economy aspirations.
Ocean Color Monitor (OCM-3)
- The advance 13 channel OCM with 360 m spatial resolution and 1400 km swath will observe the day side of the earth every day and will provide crucial data on distribution of ocean algae which is the base of the food chain within marine ecosystem.
- The OCM-3 with high signal-to-noise ratio is expected to provide improved accuracy in daily monitoring of phytoplankton having wide range of operational and research applications including fishery resource management, ocean carbon uptake, harmful algal bloom alerts, and climate studies.
Sea Surface Temperature Monitor (SSTM)
- The SSTM will provide ocean surface temperature which is a critical ocean parameter to provide various forecasts ranging from fish aggregation to cyclone genesis and movement.
- Temperature is a key parameter required to monitor health of the coral reefs, and if needed, to provide coral bleaching alerts.
Ku-Band Pencil Beam Scatterometer
- The Ku-Band Pencil beam scatterometer onboard EOS-6 will provide high resolution wind vector (speed and direction) at the ocean surface, something which any seafarer would like to know of, whether its fishermen or shipping company.
- The data of temperature and wind is also very important for assimilation into ocean and weather models to improve their forecast accuracies.
- ARGOS is a communication payload jointly developed with France and it is used for low-power (energy-efficient) communications including marine robotic floats (Argo floats), fish-tags, drifters, and distress alert devices useful for conducting effective search and rescue operations.