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Battle of Buxar 1764, Causes and Treaty of Allahabad

Battle of Buxar: On October 22, 1764, the Battle of Buxar took place. It was one of the most important conflicts in Indian history. Bengal and Bihar came under the British East India Company’s rule following the Battle of Buxar. The Battle of Plassey laid the groundwork for this conflict. The united troops of Shah Alam II (the Mughal emperor), Shuja-Ud-Daula (the Nawab of Awadh), and Mir Qasim (the Nawab of Bengal) engaged in combat, with the British East India Company’s force under the command of Hector Munro. The battle ended with the Company’s victory and Shah Alam II’s capitulation in 1765.


The Battle of Plassey gave the British a solid stronghold over the Bengal region. After Siraj-Ud-Daulah lost his position as the Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey, Mir Jafar (Commander of Siraj’s Army) took his place. When Mir Jafar emerged as the new nawab of Bengal, the British used him as a puppet, but Mir Jafar later became associated with the Dutch East India Company. Under pressure from the Company, Mir Jafar chose to step down in favor of his son-in-law, Mir Qasim, who was given the go-ahead by the British to become the next Nawab. Mir Jafar was set to get an annual pension of Rs 15000.


The Mughal Empire’s combined army, led by the Nawab of Bengal and Awadh, engaged in combat with the British East India Company’s forces on 22 October 1764. The conflict took place in Buxar, a Bihar town by the banks of the Ganges River. The following list contains a few factors that were crucial in the Battle of Buxar:

  • Mir Qasim moved his capital in 1762 from Calcutta to Munger Fort to pursue his dream of independence.
  • He proclaimed himself to be a sovereign in his own right. The British were incensed by this since they desired him to be their puppet monarch.
  • In addition, he employed foreign specialists, some of whom were at odds with the British, to instruct his army.
  • Without giving the English any preferential treatment, he treated English merchants and Indian traders equally.
  • Officials from the British East India Company exploited the Farman of 1717 and Dastak for their benefit.
  • As a result of this deed, Mir Qasim went so far as to abolish all tariffs on international trade, giving his subjects a competitive advantage and containing the British.

These elements fueled the English plot to remove him, and in 1763, warfare broke out between Mir Kasim and the Company.

Who took part in the Battle of Buxar?

  1. Qasim Mir- The terms “Dastak” and “Farmans” in English upset him. He plotted against the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the Nawab of Awadh by allying.
  2. Shuja-ul-Daulah- He was the Awadh Nawab. Along with Shah Alam II and Mir Qasim, he created a confederacy.
  3. Shah Alam II- He was Emperor of the Mughals. He wanted Bengal to be free of English rule.
  4. Hector Munro- A major in the British Army. In the war, he commanded the English forces.
  5. Robert C- Following his victory in the war, he inked treaties with Shah Alam II and Shuja Ud-Daulah.

The Buxar Battle’s Events

English forces emerged victorious at Katwah, Murshidabad, Giria, Sooty, and Munger when the conflict started in 1763. Mir Kasim escaped to Awadh (also known as Oudh) and allied himself with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-Ud-Daulah. Bengal had to be reclaimed from the English by Mir Qasim. See the following points to read the battle’s progress:

  • Qasim ran away to Oudh- He plotted a confederacy with Shah Alam II and Shuja-Ud-Daula in an attempt to drive the English out of Bengal.
  • In 1764, Major Munro’s English army troops encountered Mir Qasim’s warriors and beat the combined army.
  • The other two submitted to the English forces, while Mir Qasim fled the scene of the conflict.
  • The Treaty of Allahabad, signed in 1765, put an end to the Battle of Buxar.

The outcome of the Buxar battle

  • Mir Qasim fled the fight, leaving his soldiers behind and Shuja-Ud-Daula and Shah Alam-II submitted to the British.
  • The English established themselves as the undisputed rulers of Northern India and declared their intention to challenge the Indians for sovereignty and power.
  • Robert Clive, who was a major player in the conflict, signed the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765 along with Shuja-Ud-Daula and Shah Alam-II.
  • Mir Jafar was once more installed as the puppet king by the English following the war.
  • To keep their army together, Mir Jafar also gave the English control over the districts of Burdwan, Midnapore, and Chittagong.
  • Preferential duty exemptions were also granted to the British traders for trade in Bengal, except for salt, which carries a 2 percent tariff.
  • Nizam-Ud-Daula, Mir Jafar’s younger son, succeeded him as emperor after his death. Nonetheless, by designating a Naib-Subedar of their choosing, the British were able to retain actual administrative authority.
  • Nizam-Ud-Daula then signed a deal with the British that gave him an annual stipend of RS. 53 lakhs.
  • The pension plan was abandoned in 1772, and the British East India Company assumed direct control over Bengali governance.

The Allahabad Treaty

  • Following the Battle of Buxar in 1765, Lord Robert Clive signed two significant treaties at Allahabad with Shuja-Ud-Daula and Shah Alam-II.
  • The Nawab of Awad Shuja-Ud-Daula was compelled to give up Allahabad and Kara to Shah Alam-II in the First Treaty of Allahabad.
  • Additionally, he consented to reimburse the East India Company for Rs. 50 lakhs.
  • He gave the estate to Balwant Singh, the Zamindar of Banaras, in its entirety.
  • Despite the fall of the Shuja-Ud-Daula, Awadh remained a buffer state to prevent foreign invasion and was never annexed.
  • Shah Alam received protection from the Company in Allahabad under the terms of the First Treaty of Allahabad, and he was to live there under Shuja-Ud-Daula. The firm was to be given control over the districts of Orissa and Bihar.
  • Shah Alam was required to furnish the corporation with a Farman that granted the Diwani privileges of Bengal. Shah Alam was required to pay the company Rs. 53 lakhs a year for the Nizamat function, which includes defense, police, and justice administration, in exchange for the districts of Bengal, Orissa, and Bihar.

The Battle of Buxar significance

  • It exposed the basic weaknesses of the local forces and proved the English’s unwavering military superiority.
  • The power of the independent Nawab ended with Mir Kasim’s defeat.
  • The British East India Company ended the Nawab of Bengal’s independence in 1757 with the Battle of Plassey, but following the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765, the Company gained total governmental authority over the Awadh Mughal kingdom with the Battle of Buxar.
  • The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was able to give the East India Company Diwani as a result.
  • Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa were crowned as British empires following their victory at the Battle of Buxar.
  • They consequently acquired authority over Awadh and the Mughal emperor.

The effects of the Buxar battle

The following are some major effects of the Battle of Buxar:

  • The Mughal Empire suffered a severe blow to its authority and reputation with the defeat at Buxar. Shah Alam II, the Mughal monarch, was compelled to submit to the British as a puppet. In India, the Mughal Empire essentially lost its status as a powerful political entity.
  • The British East India Company became the dominating force in India after the Battle of Buxar.
  • Bengal and Bihar came under British rule after the Battle of Buxar. The British were able to extend their influence over other regions of India thanks to this strong economic foundation.
  • Following the Buxar Battle, the British East India Company started to enlarge its sphere of influence throughout India.
  • Indian discontent grew as a result of the fall of the Mughal Empire and the advent of British rule. The Indian Independence Movement eventually resulted from this animosity.

Important Details of the Buxar Battle

  • The Mughal Emperor, the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Oudh, and the English armies engaged in the battle in 1764.
  • Even after the defeat of Shuja-Ud-Daulah, the English refrained from assuming control of Awadh because doing so would have required the Company to defend a broad land frontier against invasions by the Maratha and Afghans.
  • By becoming a loyal ally of Great Britain, Shuja-Ud-Daulah created Awadh as a state separating English from foreign incursions.
  • Because of the Treaty of Allahabad, Shah Alam-II, the second Mughal emperor, came to be seen as a crucial “rubber stamp” for the Company. The king’s Farman affirmed the Company’s political victories in Bengal as well.
  • The battle of Buxar confirmed the result of the Plassey conflict. The might and power of the British were evident in Buxar if diplomacy and betrayal were employed to secure Plassey. The Awadh Nawab was transformed into an obedient servant.
  • The Company provided a pension to the Mughal Emperor. The Company had access to both Delhi and Agra. The Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal did not voice any further concerns about the Company’s hegemonic status.
  • After winning Buxar, the British grew to be a powerful force in Northern India and fierce competitors for supremacy throughout the nation.


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Who participated in the Buxar Battle?

The combined army of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, the Nawab of Bengal Mir Jafar and the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-Ud-Daula, engaged the British East India Company at the Battle of Buxar.

What outcome did the Battle of Buxar have?

Following their victories at the Battle of Buxar, Shah Alam-II and Shuja-Ud-Daula submitted to the British East India Company. Robert Clive, Shah Alam-II, and Shuja-Ud-Daula signed the Treaty of Allahabad shortly after the surrender.

What were the advantages of the Treaty of Allahabad for the Company?

In 1765, the Treaty of Allahabad awarded the firm Diwani's rights over Bengal, as well as the cession of Bihar and Orissa. Additionally, Shuja Ud-Daulah provided the business with a war indemnity of Rs. 50 lakhs. The corporation gained in this way from the Treaty of Allahabad.

Why did the Battle of Buxar occur?

The British East India Company mishandled Dastak and the Farman of 1717. This infuriated Bengal's then-Nawab, Mir Qasim, who eliminated tariffs on foreign trade and refused to give the British any special treatment. The Battle of Buxar was made possible by this.

Why is Battle of Buxar more significant than Plassey Battle?

The British Empire was ruled by the Battle of Buxar, which is more significant than the Battle of Plassey because it allowed British East India to establish a strong presence in India and establish the groundwork for its colonial authority.

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