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Current Affairs 19 March 2024 for UPSC And State PSC Exam

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)

News- In Pilibhit district, Uttar Pradesh, approximately 60% of dairy cattle have been impacted by the Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD).


  • A highly contagious viral disease affecting livestock, with significant economic implications.
  • Impacts cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and other cloven-hoofed ruminants; does not affect horses, dogs, or cats.
  • More prevalent in intensively reared animals compared to traditional breeds.
  • Classified as a Transboundary Animal Disease (TAD) that affects livestock production and international trade in animals and their products.
  • Distinct from hand, foot, and mouth disease, a common childhood illness caused by a different virus.
  • Caused by the aphthovirus from the family Picornaviridae.
  • Seven strains of the virus (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) are endemic globally, with immunity to one strain not offering protection against others.
  • Symptoms include fever and blister-like sores on the tongue, lips, in the mouth, on the teats, and between the hooves.
  • Rarely fatal in adults but can cause high mortality in young animals, severe production losses, and long-term debilitation in survivors.
  • First disease to receive official status recognition by the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH, originally OIE).


News- The Indian Army dispatched a contingent to Seychelles for the tenth iteration of the joint military exercise named “LAMITIYE-2024.”


  • Joint military exercise between the Indian Army and Seychelles Defence Forces (SDF).
  • Named “LAMITIYE,” which stands for “Friendship” in the Creole language.
  • A biennial event, taking place in Seychelles since 2001.
  • Participation of 45 personnel from both the GORKHA RIFLES of the Indian Army and the SDF in the 2024 exercise.
  • Aims to enhance cooperation and interoperability during Peace Keeping Operations.
  • Focus on building and promoting bilateral military relations, exchanging skills, experiences, and best practices.
  • Joint training, planning, and execution of tactical drills for threat neutralization in Semi-Urban environments.
  • Emphasis on exploiting and showcasing new-generation equipment and technology.

T+0 Settlement

News- Recently, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) greenlit the initiation of the beta version for T+0 settlement, offering it as an optional choice.


  • T+0 Settlement Definition: Settlement process where financial transactions are completed on the same day the trade is executed.
  • Instantaneous Process: Enables the immediate transfer of securities and funds between trading parties.
  • Current Indian Market Practice: As of now, India primarily operates on a T+1 settlement cycle, where transactions are settled the day after the trade.
  • Evolution of Settlement Cycles in India:
    • Initially, settlements took up to T+5 days.
    • SEBI reduced this to T+3 in 2002, then to T+2 in 2003.
    • T+1 settlement cycle introduced in 2021 and fully implemented by January 2023.
  • Benefits of T+0 Settlements:
    • Provides instant receipt of funds and securities for investors.
    • Eliminates the risk of settlement shortages.
    • Offers investors greater control over their assets.
    • Reduces counterparty risk, potentially lowering the risk of default.
    • Increases market liquidity by allowing funds to be reinvested or withdrawn faster.
  • Global Perspective: Several international exchanges, such as the Moscow Exchange (MOEX), Korea Exchange (KRX), Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE), and Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX), offer T+0 settlements for certain trades, highlighting its feasibility and advantages in fast-paced markets.
  • Future Implications: The adoption of T+0 settlements could revolutionize trading efficiency and security, fostering a more dynamic and responsive financial market ecosystem.

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