National Hydrogen Mission_00.1
UPSC Exam   »   How to Prepare for UPSC CSE Mains Examination: Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners   »   National Hydrogen Mission

National Hydrogen Mission

 

Relevance

  • GS 3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

 

Context

  • On India’s 75th Independence Day, our Prime Minister announced the launch of the National Hydrogen Mission (NHM) to make India a global hub for the production and export of green hydrogen.

 

Key points

  • The proposal for National Hydrogen Mission was made in the Budget 2021 to enable the generation of hydrogen “from green power sources“.
  • Wherever hydrogen replaces fossil fuels— whether used in fuel cells or burnt to create heat—it slows global warming.
  • Hydrogen can be a “decarbonising agent” for industries like chemicals, iron, steel, fertiliser and refining, transport, heat and power.

 

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Steps taken so far

  • Working on a pilot project on Blue Hydrogen, Hydrogen-Compressed Natural Gas (H-CNG) and Green Hydrogen.
  • Blending hydrogen with CNG for use as transportation fuel as well as an industrial input to refineries,
  • 50 buses have been rolled out which use H-CNG as its fuel.

 

Why Hydrogen?

  • Combusting one kilo of hydrogen releases three times more energy than a kilo of gasoline and produces only water.
  • Hydrogen fuel cells, which is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen into electricity, has only water as a waste product.
  • Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as hydrogen and oxygen are supplied.

 

Commission for Air Quality Management

 

Production of Hydrogen

  • 96 percent of hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels via carbon intensive processes.
  • Based on extraction methods, the hydrogen produced is classified as ‘grey’, ‘blue’, or ‘green’ hydrogen.
  • From fossil fuel, ‘grey’ hydrogen can be produced, which releases a lot of carbon dioxide.
  • When carbon dioxide (CO2), given out during its production, is locked up through carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes, ‘grey’ hydrogen becomes ‘blue’ hydrogen.
  • Both grey and blue hydrogen are produced by the same processes, the only difference for ‘blue’ hydrogen being that the CO2 produced is sequestered.
  • Government is aiming to produce ‘green’ hydrogen, which is mostly produced from clean energy sources like renewables.
  • The ‘green’ hydrogen is released via electrolysis of energy from renewable sources.
  • The hydrogen produced from this method gives rise to no CO2 emissions, is expensive and not commercially viable

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