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Tools & Techniques of Evaluation, Check Types, Merits, Demerits

Evaluation methods are used to judge student learning and understanding of the material for purposes of grading and reporting. Tools and techniques of evaluation are critically examines a subject and then assigns a grade or some other type of formal result based on how well they performed. Here we are going to learn all the tools and techniques of evaluation which will helps us understand evaluation.

Tools & Techniques of Evaluation

The process of evaluation encompasses a versatile array of tools and techniques designed to comprehensively assess individuals, projects, or outcomes. The strategic integration of these tools and techniques allows for a multifaceted and nuanced evaluation, ensuring a holistic understanding of the subject under scrutiny.


Evaluation is an attempt to appraise the quality/suitability of a resource. It is not the same as Assessment.

1.      Checklist 1.      Self Reporting
2.      Rating Scale 2.      Testing
3.      Questionnaire 3.      Observation
4.      Inventory 4.      Interview
5.      Schedule 5.      Case study
6.      Anecdotal Record 6.      Sociometry
7.      Cumulative Record 7.      Projective Techniques
8.      Tests



  1. Checklist: A checklist is a list of items for consideration. They can be in the form of questions or actions to be carried out. They can have a scoring system or they can collect comments. Checklists can speed up the collection of information by using tick-boxes and rating scales. They need to be carefully designed to make sure that when they are completed, the results are reliable and true.
  1. Rating Scale 
  • Used to classify opinions and judgments regarding situations, objects etc
  • Rating scale refers to a scale with a set of points which describes varying degrees of the dimension of an attribute being observed
  1. Questionnaire 
  • It is a device in the form of questions or statements
  • Used for collecting factual data.
  • It is a systematic compilation of questions that are submitted to the person about which information is desired.
  1. Anecdotal Record 
  • It’s a record of informal teacher observations regarding the pupil.
  • It’s a record of factual descriptions of significant events in the pupil’s life.
  • An event in the anecdotal record is known as ‘ Anecdotal’.
  1. Cumulative Record 
  • It’s a record of the complete history of the pupil
  • It’s recorded cumulatively from period to period
  • It gives information about physical, intellectual, social, scholastic, personality etc.
  1. Tests (टेस्ट)
  • A most popular tool for collecting data for evaluation.
  • Classified into three
  • Oral tests
  • Written tests
  • Performance test.

 Types of tests 

  1. Norm-Referenced Tests
  2. Criterion-Referenced Tests
  3. Teacher Made Tests
  4. Standardised Tests

Techniques of Evaluation

  1. Self Reporting
  2. Testing
  3. Observation
  4. Interview
  5. Case Study
  6. Sociometry
  7. Projective Techniques
  1. Self Reporting 
  • React to items concerning his behaviour or characteristics.
  • Used for measuring traits like interest, adjustment, attitude etc.
  • Obtained through a checklist, questionnaire, rating scale etc.
  1. Testing 
  • Commonly used technique of evaluation.
  • Mainly focused on cognitive traits.
  • Testing is an evaluation technique by which we can measure the characteristics such as knowledge, skill, intelligence, aptitude etc. of an individual or a group in a particular situation as objectively as possible.

Purpose of Testing 

  • Assessment of the present status of an individual
  • Expressing probability of future success
  • Diagnosing the causes of the lack of expected performance
  • For remedial measures
  • For academic or vocational guidance
  • Classification and comparison of individual or group
  • Undertaking research to answer various questions
  1. Observation 
  • Not mere looking
  • It’s the purposeful, goal-oriented perception of an object or situation
  • The teacher observes the behaviors of the student, if any relevant feature noticed in the behavior should be recorded as objectively as possible.
  • In observation subjectivity of the observer will be often reflected in the judgment.

Different types of observation 

  1. Controlled observation/Experiment: Observation under controlled
  2. Uncontrolled observation: Observation of events as they naturally occur.
  3. Participatory observation: Observe the students by the observer while participating in the same activity with the students.


  • Natural & Flexible
  • Economical
  • Easy to implement
  • Can be used for all ages


  • Not possible in all conditions
  • Highly subjective
  • Not accurate
  • It fails when the individual hides the actual behaviour.
  1. Interview 
  • Used to gather information in a face-to-face session regarding an individual’s experience, opinion, beliefs, feelings, etc.
  • It’s a conversation with a purpose

Types of Interviews 

  • Structured Interviews – Questions are pre-planned by the interviewer – It is systematic
  • Unstructured Interviews – Questions are not pre-planned by the interviewer – It is flexible

5. Case Study 

  • It is the in-depth study of a case such as an individual, a family, a community, an institution or a group
  • It aims to solve the deep-rooted problems


  • Gives a holistic picture of an individual
  • Helps to solve the problem.
  • Productive in nature


  • Subjective
  • Time-consuming
  • Generalisation is not possible

6. Sociometry 

  • L Moreno developed.
  • It is used for describing the social preferences of individuals in a group.
  • It reveals the social acceptance of an individual & their interpersonal relationships.
  • It will help the teacher to identify.

7. Projective Techniques 

  • Used in personality assessment
  • Used to collect data which cannot be collected directly from the individual
  • It helps to project one’s inner feelings in an unconscious manner

Examples for Projective Techniques 

  • Rorschach’s Ink Blot Test
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • Word Association Test (WAT)
  • Sentence Completion Test
  • Children’s Apperception Test (CAT)

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What are the tools and techniques of evaluation?

The tools and techniques of evaluation refer to the methods and instruments used to assess the effectiveness of a program, project, or intervention. Some common tools and techniques include surveys, questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, observation, case studies, and tests.

What is a survey?

A survey is a method of gathering information from a sample of people using a set of questions. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the phone, or online, and they are used to gather quantitative data on attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and behaviors.

What is an interview?

An interview is a method of gathering information by asking questions of an individual or group. Interviews can be conducted in person, over the phone, or online, and they are used to gather qualitative data on attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and experiences.

What is the purpose of evaluation methods in education?

Evaluation methods are employed to assess students' learning and comprehension for grading and reporting purposes. These methods aim to appraise the quality of a student's performance and understanding of the material.

How do tools and techniques of evaluation contribute to a comprehensive assessment?

The tools and techniques of evaluation, such as checklists, rating scales, questionnaires, observations, interviews, and more, collectively provide a multifaceted and nuanced approach to assessing individuals, projects, or outcomes, ensuring a holistic understanding of the subject.

How is testing used as a tool of evaluation?

Testing is a commonly used technique for evaluating cognitive traits. It measures characteristics such as knowledge, skill, intelligence, and aptitude, and can be classified into oral tests, written tests, and performance tests.

What is the role of observation in the evaluation process?

Observation is a purposeful, goal-oriented perception of an object or situation. It involves observing behaviors and recording relevant features as objectively as possible.