The Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science comprising of various branches of studies like chemistry, physical science, life science, agriculture, health, sanitary engineering etc. Environmental Studies may be an interesting subject having 30 questions in CTET and other State TET Exams. It is advised is to study the NCERT books from class 1 to 8 of to prepare well for CTET Exam. The current article will give few introductory points on Environmental Studies related topic followed by interesting facts of the same.
Shelter is the place where animal and human lives. Shelter provides protection from weather and any kind of danger. It provides the place where animal and human can rest safely and carry their usual developmental activities. Shelter also provides the place for privacy and facilities for storing the belongings.
Types of Shelter:
1. Permanent Shelter: These are the places where human or animal lives for very longer duration and spend most of its time e.g. houses, caves, nest of birds etc.
2. Temporary Shelter: These are the place where animals and humans live only for short duration and for any specific purpose. e.g. bus shelters house boats, migratory birds nest at different place, tent houses, caravan, shelter home etc.
Animals and Their Shelter:
• Animals live on land and forests: Cow, dog, donkey, horse, lion, elephant, dear, rhinoceros, peacock.
• Animals live on tree: Monkey, birds, sloth, apes, and birds.
• Animals live in the burrows: Rat, snake, ant, rabbits, earthworms, and scorpion.
• Animals live both on land and water: Snake, crocodile etc.
Birds and Their Shelter:
• Indian Robin: It makes its nest on the top of tree with grass, soft twigs, roots, wool, hair and cotton wool. It lays its eggs between the stone.
• Koel: It does not make its nest. It gives eggs in the nest of crow and crow hatches them with its own egg.
• Crow: Crow makes its nest high up on a tree and it makes its nest using wire, wood, grass and twigs.
• Sparrow and Pigeon: These birds make their nest in the buildings usually. On the top of cupboard, behind a mirror, on a ventilator.
• Tailor Bird: It makes its nest by weaving and stitching the leaves. It uses its sharp beak to stitch the leaves on a bush. It lays eggs in the fold of a leaf that it has made.
• Barbet: Barbet or coopersmith makes its nest in a hole or in a tree trunk.
• Dove: The dove birds make its nest among the thorn of a cactus plant or in a mehendi hedge.
• Sun Bird: It makes a nest that hangs from the branches of a small tree or bush. Nest is made with hair, grass, thin twigs etc.
• Weaver Bird: Male weaver birds make its nest for the female. It makes beautifully woven nest for female to lay egg.
Insects and Their Living Habits:
Shelter of human is called house. House can be of two different types:
• Kutcha house are made up of wood, mud, straw etc. e.g. hut.
• Pucca house are made up of bricks, cement, sand, iron, wood and steel. e.g. apartments, flats, bungalow etc.
Various factors play an important role in deciding the choice shelter and some of these factors are following
• Location and Geography of Area: Different style of houses is found in desert, hilly area plains etc.
• Environmental Condition: Rainfall, temperature season like summer, winter etc. These factors decide the choice of house in specific area.
• Availability of Raw Material in Local Area and Economic Status of Individual: Raw materials which are easily and economically available are preferred material for construction of house. Economic status of individual also decides the type of house he can afford.
Specific Houses in Specific Area:
1. House made up of Mud:
• These houses are found in hot deserts of Rajasthan and in villages.
• These houses help in better adapting to excessive heat, mud wall of these houses are made thick so that heat does not crosses it.
• Roots are made up of fooder and bushes, wood of Accacia (kikar) is used in roof in order to protect roof from insects.
• These houses are painted with mud and cow dung to protect the mud from breaking and for protection against the insects.
2. House made up of Wood and Bamboo:
• These houses are made in those areas where there is very heavy rain. These bamboo and wood houses are 10-12 feet above the ground, so that it remains unaffected from flood.
• These houses are found in Assam and in some other parts of North – East.
3. House made up of Stone:
Stone houses are found in cold desert of Ladakh and other hilly desert areas.
• The walls are coated with a thick layer of mud and lime. Thick tree may be used to make roof of first floor strong and wooden floor, wooden ceiling are also found in the houses.
• In two story building of Ladakh, on the ground floor necessary things and animals are kept and on the first floor people live. Ground floor does not have windows.
• In intense cold people can shift to the ground floor. On the roof of the house, vegetables and fruits are kept for drying.
4. House made up of Stone and Wood:
• These houses are found in hilly areas where there is good amount of rainfall and snowfall.
• Roof of these houses are sloping on the sides so that snow and rain can fall easily on the ground. These houses may be made up of stone, bricks and woods.
• These houses can be found in Srinagar, Manali and other areas of Kashmir valley. Houses in Srinagar display beautiful carving of wood on the ceiling of house; door and windows have beautiful arches known as Mehraab.
5. House Boat:
• House boats are made up of wood and are present in water. These houses can be up to 80 feet long and 8-9 feet wide.
• These house boats have beautiful wooden carving on it and these carving are known as khatamband. These houseboats are found in Kashmir and Kerala.
6. Fort and Palace:
• These buildings were made in earlier times by kings and emperor.
• These buildings were very big and have large number of rooms.
• Walls and ceiling of these buildings have design and motif on it.
• Donga: Donga are house in water, house is present on the boat, with different rooms in it. It can be seen in Dal lake Kashmir.
• Igloo: Igloo is found in very cold region. These houses are made up of ice blocks. Shape of Igloo is oval shaped and entry door of Igloo is very small. Eskimos live in the Igloo.
• Tent House: Tent house offers a temporary shelter; tent house can be made up of plastic and clothes. Mountaineers used such houses and they make it using two layer plastics. Changpa tribe of Ladakh used yak hair woven strips to make big coned shaped tent. They call their tent Rebo.
Now Answer The Following Questions:
Q1. A house made up of mud, bamboo and straw is called
(a) Pucca house
(b) Kutcha house
Q2. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) In Rajasthan, mud houses are made as an adaptation to heat.
(b) Mud walls are painted with soil and cowdung to prevent wall from breaking and prevent the growth of insect.
(c) Accacia tree trunk are used to prevent growth of infection
(d) In Assam, houses are made few feets higher from the ground and house stands on stone pillar.
Sol. Kutcha house are made up of wood, mud, straw etc. e.g. hut.
Sol. In Assam, houses are made few feets higher from the ground and house stands on stone pillar is an incorrect statement. In Assam, houses are made up of wood and Bamboo.