The Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science comprising of various branches of studies like chemistry, physical science, life science, agriculture, health, sanitary engineering etc. Environmental Studies may be an interesting subject having 30 questions in CTET and other State TET Exams. The Environmental Science section divides its questions into two parts: Subject Content which consist of 15 marks and EVS Pedagogy which consist of 15 marks. It is advised is to study the NCERT books from class 1 to 8 of to prepare well for CTET Exam. The current article will give few introductory points on EVS Pedagogy.
TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
Teaching Learning Materials (TLM), also known as instructional aids, facilitate a teacher in achieving the learning objectives formulated by her/him prior to teaching-learning activities start.
Teaching learning materials provide a range of learning experiences to learners from direct to indirect. Edgar Dale (1969) arranged the learning experiences on a continuum of ‘directness to indirectness’ which has correlation with continuum of ‘concreteness to abstract’. He called it a ‘Cone of Experiences’.
Purpose of using TLM:
(i) Motivate Learners: TLMs help in capturing the attention of learner in classroom. TLMs provide a variety of stimuli, which helps in making classroom teaching most effective.
(ii) Help in longer retention of information: The more the number of sensory channels involved in interacting with TLMs, the longer will be the retention of information. Therefore, the learning will be effective and will last long.
(iii) Facilitate holistic learning: To achieve varied objectives, varied learning experiences need to be provided, which can be done through the use of TLMs.
(iv) Helps in organizing classroom teaching: You can use visual or verbal TLMs to present accurate data in sequentially organized manner. This helps teacher to verbal and visual communication in classroom. Thus, you may use TLMs to overcome shortcomings in verbal or visual communication.
(v) Practical applications: TLMs show application of theoretical knowledge into practical applications.
(vi) Making learning fun: TLMs help in making learning fun in the classroom. Students enjoy the novelty of handling new objects and learn new concepts through them.
(vi) Concept formation: TLMs facilitate the formation and attainment of concepts among children. They concretize the abstract concepts; thus children are able to understand them and not resort to rote learning.
Types of Teaching Learning Materials
TLMs can broadly classify into three categories:
1. Audio Aids: TLMs primarily stimulate the hearing sense of learner. It includes – human voice, telephonic conversation, audio discs/tapes, gramophone records, Radio broadcast.
2. Visual Aids: These types of TLMs involve the sense of vision. They stimulate the visual impulses. These can be of various types as given below:
• Visual (Verbal) Print. (the text is the main instructional or teaching learning aid)
• Textbook, Supplementary book.
• Reference books, encyclopedia, etc.
• Magazine, Newspaper
• Documents and Clippings Case Studies/Reports etc.
• Visual (Pictorial- Non Projected)
(a) Non – projected two dimensional: Examples of such type of TLMs are blackboard writing and drawing Charts, Posters, Maps, Diagrams, Graphs, Photographs, Cartoons, Comic strips.
(b) Non – projected three dimensional: It includes – Models, Mock-up, Diorama, Globe, Relief Map, Specimen, Puppet, and Hologram.
3. Audio Visual Aids: These are the projected aids, which use both auditory and visual senses to enhance learning. The greatest advantage of these is they are the closest representation of reality. These include – Motion Picture Film, Television, Video discs/cassettes, slide – tape presentations, Multimedia Computer.
Who can take Benefits from Visual Aids?
Though every children can take benefit while using visual aids for learning. But it is more helpful for those students:
• Having Language Disorder
• Autism Spectrum Disorder
• Down Syndrome
• Those who have Learning Disabilities
• Student who have English as a secondary Language
• Those having Oppositional Defiant Disorder
• Personality Development Delay
• Have the problem of Hearing Impairment
• Have the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD
Advantages of TLMs:
• Its helps to make learning process more effective and conceptual.
• Its helps to grab the attention of students
• It builds interest and motivation teaching students learning process
• It enhance the energy level of teaching and students
• It is even better for over burden classrooms
• It provides students a realistic approach and experience
Q1. The skills required to read a map include
मानचित्र को पढ़ने के लिए आवश्यक कौशल में शामिल हैं
(a) excellent drawing and painting skills / उत्कृष्ट ड्राइंग और पेंटिंग कौशल
(b) ability to use calculations and sketch positions on a globe / एक ग्लोब की गणना और रेखाओं की स्थिति का उपयोग करने की क्षमता
(c) excellent communication skills to draw out the expressive ability / अर्थपूर्ण क्षमता निर्माण के लिए उत्कृष्ट संचार क्षमता
(d) ability to understand relatives position of places, distance and directions / स्थान, दूरी और दिशाओं की सापेक्ष स्थिति को समझने की क्षमता
Sol. It is important to be able to understand the relating positions of places, etc. to read a map correctly be used as a teaching aid to describe different kinds of soils, forests, cultures, climates, etc. to students.