In many teaching exams including DSSSB, EMRS, REET, MPTET etc. English section will have questions based on reading comprehension, sentence formation, synonyms & antonyms, grammatical errors and so on. English may be an interesting subject having 15 questions of English content and 15 questions of English Pedagogy in each paper of REET and other State TET Exams. In DSSSB , English Pedagogy Comes in TGT English Paper for 20 marks with 20 Questions.
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ROLE OF SPEAKING: FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE
• Speaking is a productive or expressive skill in oral mode and a crucial part of learning.
• Speech is normally produced by manipulating the air-stream coming out of the lungs, speaking is an act of conversing or expressing one’s thoughts and feelings in spoken language.
• Speaking often implies conveying information. It may be from an informal remark to a scholarly presentation to a formal address.
A. Types of Speaking Situation:
There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves:
1. Interactive: It includes face to face conversations and telephone calls in which we alternate between listening and speaking.
2. Partially Interactive: Speaking situation can be a public speech where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech.
3. Non – Interactive: Few speaking situations can be totally non – interactive such as when recording a speech for a radio broadcast.
It has been found that although fear of speaking is common, studies show that ability to speaking can be enhanced by improving speaking skills.
B. Essential Conditions of Speaking Skills:
• Effective speaking concerns about being able to speak in a public context with confidence and clarity.
• Some aspects of effective speaking are as follow
• Finding one’s voice.
• The effect of breath on voice and speech.
• Vocal production In this three core elements of vocal production are volume, clarity and variety
• Appropriate gestures while speaking also make it effective.
C. Aims of Speaking Skills:
• Develop the habit of speaking sentences clearly and comprehensibly.
• Be able to express feelings and emotions in speech or statements.
• Be able to critically evaluate ideas and beliefs of others and to draw logical conclusions.
• Enable the use of correct words, spellings, stress, rhyme, fluency, pause and appropriate phonetic transcription.
• Make the learner a good and confident speaker.
D. Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills:
• Speaking is a crucial part of language learning process. Effective instructors teach students speaking strategies which can help them to expand their knowledge of the language and their confidence in using it.
• Sometimes learners are asked to build up a stock of minimal responses to be used in different types of exchanges.
• These minimal responses are predictable and useful for beginners.
• Students can be made aware of different scripts for different situations like greetings or compliments or apologies.
• Through interactive activities instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different scripts contain. . Speaking skill can also be developed by creating an authentic practice environment within the classroom.
• Such type of language environment arouses confidence in even shy students.
• Such practice helps students even outside the classroom where communication is required.
Using Minimal Responses:
• Sometimes to encourage learners, who lack in the ability to participate in oral interaction, is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges.
• This situation enables a learner to focus on what the other participant is saying, without having to simultaneously plan a response.
• Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges , a script, greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations and other functions that are influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts.
• The transactional exchanges involved in activities such as obtaining information and making a purchase. In these scripts, the relationship between a speaker turn and the one that follows it can often be anticipated.
• Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response.
• Through interactive activities, instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different script contain.
Using Language to Talk about Language:
• Language learners are often too embarrassed or shy to say anything when they do not understand another speaker or when they realize that a conversation partner has not understood them.
• Instructors can help students overcome this reticence by assuring them that misunderstandings and need for clarification can occur in any type of interaction.
• Clarification phrases help the students to respond positively. Instructors can create an authentic practice environment within the classroom itself through such strategies. Such situations arouse confidence in students to manage various communication situations that they may encounter outside the classroom.
E. Suggestions for Developing Speaking and Listening Skills:
• The class should be divided into small groups.
• Instructors/teachers serve as a good model for the learners. Learners generally imitate their teachers. Thus, pronunciation stress, rhythm and intonation of the teacher should be good.
• At the primary level, speaking activities should include greetings, informal requests, asking personal information, sharing stories, experience and interests.
• Language skill can be learnt by activities through or based on situations.
• Individual attention must be given to learners.
• One or two periods per section be allotted for oral conversation exclusively.
• The teachers should have a sympathetic outlook towards listening and speaking shortcomings of learners.
• Language is the ultimate means of communication.
• An agreed code exists in all languages according to the culture of its country.
F. Various Uses of Listening and Speaking Skills:
I. Children Use their Listening skills to:
• Understand concepts, facts, ideas, feelings etc.
• Understand particular sounds that are intimately connected with certain objects.
• Focus on and try to comprehend the speaker’s meaning,
• Understand the characteristics of English speech and sounds, including stress and intonation patterns.
• Understand the correct pronunciation of words.
II. Children Use their Speaking Skills to:
• Develop and enhance their vocabulary.
• Express their feelings or views.
• Get fluency and proficiency in the language.
• Improve their diction and learn from mistakes.
• Non – verbal actions such as facial expressions and gestures that accompany speech help to make child understand the feelings of others.
III. Functions of a Language:
Functions of a Language are:
• Develops four skills (LSRW – Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing)
• Verbal interaction.
• The expressive function.
• Social function and Cultural function.
• Communicative approach helps in understanding phonemes (pronunciation) and morphemes (spellings) and grammar.
G. How Children Use it as a Tool?
• Children use a form of language to communicate their thoughts, needs, desires and express their feelings.
• They maintain their relation with the society and share their culture by interacting with the help of their language.
• Children apply the words and sentences listened at places to communicate with others. They come across with their aesthetic values in the form of written records in terms of stories or poems.
• Children use words as tool by which they store information.
• Children develop their thinking abilities with the use of language which helps in generating new ideas.