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What is the Valency of Carbon and its Compounds?

The valency of Carbon is?

The valency of an element refers to how well it can combine with other atoms to form chemical compounds or molecules. Carbon contains four valence electrons and has a valence of four in this situation. Carbon forms four covalent bonds and shares its valence electrons to achieve the noble gas configuration. The valency of Carbon is four. A carbon’s exterior electronic configuration is 2S2 and 2P2.

What is the Valency of Carbon and its Compounds?_40.1


Valency of Carbon: Hybridisation

Hybridization is the process of mixing atomic orbitals to create new hybrid orbitals that are suitable for representing bonding qualities. Apart from being an important aspect of valence bond theory, hybridised orbitals are useful in characterising the form of molecular orbitals. The atomic orbitals that contribute to hybridization are referred to as hybrid. For example, one s-orbital and three p-orbitals on the carbon atom form a set of sp3 orbitals in methane, whose chemical formula is CH4. The four hydrogen atoms at the vertices of a typical tetrahedron are targeted by these orbitals.

A double bond exists between the carbon atoms in ethene(C2H4). sp2 hybridises the carbon here. The 2s orbital mingles with two of the three 2p orbitals available in sp2 hybridization, resulting in a total of 3sp2 orbitals with one remaining p-orbital. Two carbon atoms form a sigma bond by overlaying two sp2 orbitals in ethane, and each carbon atom forms two covalent connections with hydrogen by overlapping all s-sp2 with 120o angles. A 2p-2p overlap forms the pi connection between the carbon atoms. The hydrogen-carbon bonds are of similar length and strength, which is supported by experimental evidence.


Valency of Carbon and its Compounds: Alkane

Single bonds exist between the carbon atoms of an alkane. Ethane C2H6 is the simplest alkane with more than one carbon atom. Each carbon is coupled with three hydrogens and is held together by a single bond. As a result, each carbon in the alkane has one carbon bond and three hydrogen bonds, giving it a total valency of four.


Valency of Carbon: In Alkyne

The carbon atoms in an alkyne have three bonds between them. Ethyne or acetylene C2H2 is an alkyne molecule with more than one carbon atom. The carbons are joined in a triple bond, with one hydrogen linked to each carbon. As a result, each carbon in the alkyne has three carbon bonds and one hydrogen bond, giving it a total valency of four.


Valency of Carbon and its Compounds: Alkene

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with the chemical formula CnH2n that contain carbon-carbon double bonds. Cycloalkanes have the same molecular formula as this. Alkenes are named in the same way that alkanes are, with the exception that the suffix is now -ene. The carbons are double bonded, with two hydrogens bound to each of them. As a result, each carbon in the alkyne has two bonds with carbon and two bonds with hydrogen, giving it a total valency of four.

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Valency of Carbon: FAQs

Ques. Why the valency of carbon is 4?

Ans. The outermost valence shell of a carbon atom has four electrons. To complete the octet configuration, it requires four additional electrons. Carbon has a valency of four.

Ques. Why is carbon valency 2 in CO?

Ans. Carbon has a valency of 2 in CO. This is due to the fact that carbon shares two electrons with oxygen, who in turn shares two electrons with carbon. As a result, both carbon and oxygen complete their octet, yielding the stable molecule carbon monoxide.

Ques. Can the valency of carbon be 1?

Ans. Carbon cannot have a valency of 1. Carbon has four valence electrons, and its valency is four in this situation. An element’s valency is a measure of its ability to combine with other atoms to form chemical compounds or molecules.

Ques. Why does carbon not show +4 or 4 valence?

Ans. Because of the carbon electron orbitals, no 4 bond is formed between carbon atoms. It requires four extra electrons to fill its outer energy level since it possesses four valence electrons.

Ques. What is the way to calculate valency?

Ans. If the outermost shell of an atom contains 4 or less electrons, the valency of an element is equal to the number of electrons present in the outermost shell; if it contains more than 4, the valency of an element is calculated by subtracting the total number of electrons from 8.

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