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Ncert Solutions Class 12 Biology

Ncert Solutions Class 12 Biology -_2.1

Ncert Solutions Class 12 Biology Free PDF Download

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology not only covers the full CBSE syllabus but they are also enough to cover the basics and fundamentals of all the topics required in competitive exams such as JEE and NEET.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology has been given in the links below. Students can access these solutions directly by clicking on the links given below. The pdf files given can also be downloaded and viewed at your convenience.

Biology is the study of life. The main aim of the biologists is to study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms. It is a very vast subject. NCERT (National council of education and training) follows a curriculum for schools which follows CBSE (Central board of secondary education). The NCERT solutions provide a comprehensive learning and provides students to develop skills with logical reasoning. The difficult topics and concepts are simplified and explained in these solutions to make them easier.


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology in English Free PDF Download


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – Chapter-Wise


The Ncert Solutions Class 12 textbook of biology covers the topics such as Reproduction, Inheritance, Evolution, Food production, Ecosystem and so on. The book displays diagrams for easy understanding of the text.


Class 12 Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction in organisms covers the process of reproduction in different organisms. The sub-concepts included are asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, pre fertilization events, fertilization and post fertilization events. The diagrams illustrated in the book provides a better understanding of the concepts.


Class 12 Chapter 2 Sexual reproduction in Flowering plants

The process of sexual reproduction, structure and morphology of plants are included in the chapter. The sub-concepts involved are pre-fertilization events, double fertilization, post fertilization events and processes such as apomixis and polyembryony.


Class 12 Chapter 3 Human Reproduction

The chapter covers the human male and female reproductive systems. The diagrams, pictures, illustrations, flowcharts and simple to understand language. The sub-concepts included in the chapter are: Male and female reproductive structures, male reproductive system, female reproductive systems, sex hormones (function and roles), gametogenesis (male and female) and so on.


Class 12 Chapter 4 Reproductive health

The chapter covers importance of reproductive health and methods to achieve it. The maternal health and health of the infant during different phases of pregnancy are also covered. The sub-concepts involved are: Reproductive health, Birth control (meaning and measures), Medical termination of pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and infertility.


Class 12 Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and variation

The chapter covers the topics Genetics and evolution. Genetics cover similarities and variations in the parents and offsprings. The topic of genetics involve Mendel’s laws of inheritance, inheritance of one and two genes, determination of sex, mutations and some genetic disorders. Evolution covers the origin of life, Darwin’s theory of natural selection, different theories related to evolution, evidences of evolution and so on.


Class 12 Chapter 6 Molecular basis of Inheritance

The chapter covers diagrams to understand the basic structures of DNA, RNA, replication and so on. The topics are: Structure of DNA including the structure of the polynucleotide chain, packaging of the DNA helix, RNA structure, the process of replication, transcription, types of RNA, genetic code, operon models and human genome project.


Class 12 Chapter 7 Evolution

The chapter covers the study of history of different life forms on the earth. The origin of life and evolution of the life forms is covered in the chapter. Different flowcharts, illustrations, diagrams displayed in the textbook make the topic easier.


Class 12 Chapter 8 Health and Diseases

The chapter covers Health which is the maintenance of the body functions, diseases, treatment and prevention. The forms of immunity displayed in the body and their encounter to diseases like AIDS, Cancer, and adolescence issues along with drugs and alcohol abuse are covered in the chapter.


Class 12 Chapter 9 Strategies for enhancement in food production

The chapter takes into account the biological principles applied to the animal husbandry and plant breeding techniques in increasing the food production. Certain new era techniques such as embryo transfer technology and tissue culture play an important role in enhancing the food production are also included.


Class 12 Chapter 10 Microbes in Human welfare

Microbes are the microorganisms or the tiny organisms that can only with seen under the microscope. These are tiny living organisms which are invisible to the naked eye and are present in our surroundings. They play an important role in the evolution of the planet earth. The disease-causing organisms are known as pathogens.


Class 12 Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and processes

Biotechnology is the process of integration of natural science and organisms, cells and other parts for products and services. The chapter covers the study of the basic principles involved in the biotechnology, some core techniques involved are genetic engineering and manufacturing of antibiotics, drugs and other vaccines.


Class 12 Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

The chapter addresses the technique of biotechnology into how human beings have used biotechnology to improve the quality of the life in food production and health. Certain microbes, plants, animals and other metabolic machinery have been provided useful by biotechnology to humans.


Class 12 Chapter 13 Organisms and populations

The chapter goes through the ecology at the levels of organisms and population. The topics such as organisms and environment, niche, major abiotic factors such as regulation, conformation, migration and suspension.


Class 12 Chapter 14 Ecosystem

Ecosystem is the functional unit of environment where the living organisms interact among themselves and with the surrounding environment. The chapter covers the structure of the ecosystem to appreciate productivity, food chain and the output.


Class 12 Chapter 15 Biodiversity and its Conservation

The chapter covers the importance and significance of biodiversity, types, patterns, evolution, degradation and conservation. The topics covered are genetic diversity, species diversity, latitudinal gradients, species area relationship, causes of biodiversity losses, in situ conservation and ex situ conservation.


Class 12 Chapter 16 Environmental issues

The chapter deals with the problems that are threatening to the environment and disturb the ecological balance in the nature. The effects of pollution on the human life and effect of pollution in day to day life.

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