Decomposition reactions are the breakdown of chemical species into simpler components. Typically, decomposition reactions necessitate the addition of energy. The breakdown of potassium chlorate (KClO3) by heat, for example, is a typical way of creating oxygen gas in the laboratory.
Decomposition Reaction Formula
2KClO3(s) → 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
Another breakdown reaction is the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride (NaCl) at high temperatures to produce sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl2).
2NaCl (l) → 2Na (l) + Cl2(g)
The decomposition of mercury oxide (HgO) with heat to give mercury metal (Hg) and oxygen gas is a very important decomposition process in the history of chemistry. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier employed this reaction in their investigations on oxygen in the 18th century.
2HgO(s) → 2Hg (l) + O2(g)
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Decomposition Reaction: Format for General Reactions
A decomposition reaction’s general format is shown below.
AB -> A + B
The parent molecule (reactant) is AB, while the resultant molecules are A and B.
Decomposition Reaction: Examples for Class 10
Decomposition reactions occur all around us, although we are generally unaware of them. The following are some common instances of decomposition reactions.
The chemical equation
H2CO3 → H2O + CO2
can be used to depict the decomposition of carbonic acid in soft drinks.
Water is electrolyzed to produce hydrogen and oxygen.
Decomposition Reaction: Inverse Reaction
A combination reaction is the polar opposite of a decomposition process. The creation of a single product from two or more reactants is the goal of these reactions.
Decomposition Reactions: Applications
The extraction of metals from their ores is one of the most common uses of decomposition processes. Zinc, for example, can be extracted from calamine by a decomposition reaction. Sodium can also be created from sodium chloride in a similar way (NaCl).
Decomposition Reaction: Reaction of Double Decomposition
A double decomposition reaction occurs when two constituent reactants exchange positive and negative ions, resulting in the formation of two new compounds.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + HOH(l)
Decomposition Reaction: Types
The following are the three main types of breakdown reactions:
Reaction of thermal degradation
A decomposition reaction that is activated by thermal energy is known as a thermal decomposition reaction. To put it another way, a thermal decomposition reaction necessitates the delivery of energy to the reactants in the form of heat. Because energy is required to break chemical bonds and separate the constituent elements, such reactions are usually endothermic. The following is an example of a thermal breakdown reaction.
CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
Calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide when heated. This procedure is used to make quick lime, which is a critical ingredient in a variety of industries.
Reaction of electrolytic decomposition
The activation energy for decomposition in an electrolytic decomposition reaction is delivered in the form of electrical energy. The electrolysis of water is an example of an electrolytic breakdown reaction, which can be represented by the chemical equation:
2H2O→ 2H2 + O2
Photo decomposition/ Photolytic breakdown/ Photochemical decomposition
A photodecomposition reaction is a sort of decomposition reaction in which the reaction absorbs energy from photons and breaks down into its parts. The decomposition of dioxygen and an oxygen radical, as indicated by the chemical equation below, is an example of a photo decomposition reaction.
O3 + hv → O2 + O
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Decomposition Reaction: FAQs
Ques. What are 2 examples of decomposition reactions?
Ans. When one reactant breaks down into two or more products, it is called a decomposition reaction. AB A + B is a general equation that can be used to represent this. The breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, as well as the breakdown of water to hydrogen and oxygen, are examples of decomposition reactions.
Ques. Which is decomposition reaction?
Ans. Decomposition reactions are the breakdown of chemical species into simpler components. Typically, decomposition reactions necessitate the addition of energy. The breakdown of potassium chlorate (KClO3) by heat, for example, is a typical way of creating oxygen gas in the laboratory.
Ques. What are the types of decomposition reactions with examples?
Ans. A photodecomposition reaction is a sort of decomposition reaction in which the reactant absorbs energy from photons and breaks down into its parts. The decomposition of dioxygen and an oxygen radical, as indicated by the chemical equation below, is an example of a photo decomposition reaction.
Ques. What are the 5 types of chemical reactions?
Ans. The five types of chemical reactions are: Combination (Synthesis) reaction. (A + B → AB), Decomposition reaction. (AB → A + B), Displacement reaction. (A + BC → AB + C), Double displacement reaction. (AB + CD → AD + BC), and Combustion reaction.
Ques. What are the three types of decomposition?
Ans. The decomposition reactions can be classified into three types:
- Thermal Decomposition Reaction.
- Electrolytic Decomposition Reaction.
- Photo Decomposition Reaction.
Ques. Give Examples of Decomposition Chemical Reactions.
Ans. Every day examples of Decomposition reaction in our lives are:
- Electrolysis: Water —> hydrogen and water
- When a soft drink loses its bubbles: Carbonic acid —> Carbon dioxide and water
- Digestion process: Food —> proteins and carbohydrates
- Silver chloride —> silver and chlorine.