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Present Perfect Tense-Formula, Examples, Exercise, Rules, Sentences

Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is a tense used to describe an action that has already happened at a given time. It employs verb + ed as the primary verb and an auxiliary verb and past participle. I’ve watched this movie before, and He finished his homework are two instances of the present perfect tense.

To show a connection between the present and the past, we utilize the present perfect tense. In other words, the action took place in the past but at an unspecified time. In reality, we are generally more interested in the results than the activity itself. The past participle and have/has combine to generate this tense.

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Present Perfect Tense: Definition

In English, the present perfect tense is “the form of a verb that describes an action done in a time period up to the present, constructed with the present tense of “have” and the “past participle” of the verb, as in I have eaten,” according to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary. The present perfect tense is described as “the form of the verb used for actions or occurrences that have been accomplished or have happened in a span of time up to now” by the Cambridge Dictionary.

The Collins Dictionary provides a much more detailed explanation, stating that “the present perfect tenses of a verb are used to talk about things that happened before the time you are speaking or writing but are relevant to the present situation, or things that started in the past and are still happening.” The present perfect tense is described as a verb tense that “expresses an action or state begun in the past and completed at the time of speaking (as in “I have finished”) or continuing in the present (as in “We have lived here for several years”). This definition is taken from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Present Perfect Tense: Formula

The general formula of the Present Perfect Tense is given below

Subject + have/has + past participle (third form of the verb) + rest of the sentence.

The formation of the present perfect tense can be analyzed with reference to positive, negative, interrogative, and negative interrogative types of sentences. Have a look at the table given below for a better understanding.

Formation of the Present Perfect Tense

Positive Negative Interrogative Negative Interrogative
Subject + have/has + past participle + the rest of the sentence Subject + have/has + not + past participle + the rest of the sentence Have/has + subject + past participle + the rest of the sentence? Have/has + subject + not + past participle + the rest of the sentence?

(or)

Haven’t / hasn’t + subject + past participle + the rest of the sentence?

Examples

 

·        We have played cricket on the ground.

·        He has written a story.

·        They have worked on this project.

·        She has recited a poem in the classroom.

·        I have watered the plants.

 

Examples

 

·        We have not played cricket on the ground.

·        He has not written a story.

·        They have not worked on this project.

·        She has not recited a poem in the classroom.

·        I have not watered the plants.

 

Examples

 

·        Have we played cricket on the ground?

·        Has he written a story?

·        Have they worked on this project?

·        Has she recited a poem in the classroom?

·        Havewatered the plants?

 

Examples

 

·        Have we not played cricket on the ground?

·        Haven’t we played cricket on the ground?

·        Has he not written a story?

·        Hasn’t he written the story?

·        Have they not worked on this project?

·        Haven’t they worked on the project?

·        Has not she recited a poem in the classroom?

·        Hasn’t she recited the poem?

 

·        Havewatered the plants?

 

Present Perfect Tense Rules

Rules to be followed while using Present Perfect Tense

Before using the present perfect tense, the first thing you must understand is how past participles are created. In most circumstances, adding an “ed” to the basic form of the verb in English creates a past participle. Many irregular verbs, on the other hand, have unusual spellings and do not follow the regular verbs’ pattern of adding “ed” to the base form. To examine how these verbs are in their past participle forms, you might look at the list of irregular verbs.

The very next thing to remember is that a sentence with the past perfect form of the verb employs two verbs: a helping verb and the main verb. The two helping verbs used are ‘have’ and ‘has’. When the pronouns ‘I,’ ‘you,’ ‘they,’ or plural nouns act as the subject in a sentence, ‘have’ is used. When the pronouns ‘he’, ‘she,’ ‘it,’ or singular nouns act as the subject, ‘has’ is used.

Why to use Present Perfect Tense?

  • An action or situation that began in the past and is still ongoing.
  • A recurring action in an unspecified time between the past and the present.
  • To connect the events of the present with the events of the past.
  • An action that was completed recently. The word ‘just’ is used to express it.

Difference between Simple Past and Present Perfect Tense

The distinction between the present perfect and the simple past tenses could be confusing to you as a language learner.

They both, after all, refer to previous events that have already happened.

I’m hoping that after reading this post, you will be able to distinguish between the two without ever being in doubt again.

  • When discussing events that have already ended, the simple past is used. The event will take place at a specific time, and its details are known.
  • Generally speaking, the present perfect denotes an action that began in the past and continues up until the present or has some effects in the present.

Present Perfect Tense Examples

Examples of Present Perfect Tense

Pronouns / Nouns

Examples

I have worked as an educator for two years.
You You have worked as an educator for two years.
We We have worked as educators for two years.
He He has worked as an educator for two years.
She She has worked as an educator for two years.
They They have worked as educators for two years.
It It has been here the whole time.
Singular noun Joy has worked as an educator for two years.
Plural noun Vedika and Rachna have worked as educators for two years.

Present Perfect Tense Exercise: Assess Yourself

To make a statement in the present perfect tense, write the correct form of the verb that is indicated in the brackets.

  1. John _________ his friend in the 150 m race. (beat)
  2. The snake ___________ on his leg in the jungle. (bite)
  3. _____ you ______ all the documents carefully? (keep)
  4. The dust __________  everywhere in the kitchen. (blow)
  5. She ___________ anything yet for the party wearing. (not/ choose)
  6. _____ she ______ this task completely? (do)
  7. He _______ most of the time playing video games. (spend)
  8. She _________ a single word yet. (speak)
  9. Where _____ you _______ yesterday? (sit)
  10. I __________ this novel many times. (read)

Check your answers

  1. John has beaten his friend in the 150 m race. (beat)
  2. The snake has bitten on his leg in the jungle. (bite)
  3. Have you kept all the documents carefully? (keep)
  4. The dust has blown everywhere in the kitchen. (blow)
  5. She has not chosen anything yet for the party wearing. (not/ choose)
  6. Has she done this task completely? (do)
  7. He has not spent most of the time playing video games. (spend)
  8. She has not spoken a single word yet. (speak)
  9. Where have you sat yesterday? (sit)
  10. I have read this novel many times. (read)

Present Perfect Tense Examples in Hindi

  1. मैं मैंने एक शिक्षक के रूप में दो साल तक काम किया है।
  2. आप आपने दो साल तक एक शिक्षक के रूप में काम किया है।
  3. हम हमने दो साल तक शिक्षकों के रूप में काम किया है।
  4. उन्होंने दो साल तक एक शिक्षक के रूप में काम किया है।
  5. उसने दो साल तक एक शिक्षिका के रूप में काम किया है।
  6. उन्होंने दो साल तक शिक्षकों के रूप में काम किया है।
  7. यह यहाँ पूरे समय रहा है।
  8. एकवचन संज्ञा जॉय ने दो साल तक एक शिक्षक के रूप में काम किया है।
  9. बहुवचन संज्ञा वेदिका और रचना ने दो साल तक शिक्षकों के रूप में काम किया है।

Related Post:

Present Perfect Tense in Hindi

वर्तमान पूर्ण काल एक ऐसा काल है जिसका उपयोग किसी क्रिया का वर्णन करने के लिए किया जाता है जो किसी निश्चित समय पर पहले ही हो चुकी होती है। यह क्रिया + एड को प्राथमिक क्रिया और एक सहायक क्रिया और पिछले कृदंत के रूप में नियोजित करता है। मैंने यह फिल्म पहले भी देखी है, और उसने अपना गृहकार्य पूरा कर लिया है, यह वर्तमान पूर्ण काल के दो उदाहरण हैं।

वर्तमान और अतीत के बीच संबंध दिखाने के लिए, हम वर्तमान पूर्ण काल का उपयोग करते हैं। दूसरे शब्दों में, कार्रवाई अतीत में हुई थी लेकिन एक अनिर्दिष्ट समय पर हुई थी। वास्तव में, हम आम तौर पर गतिविधि की तुलना में परिणामों में अधिक रुचि रखते हैं। पिछले कृदंत और इस काल को उत्पन्न करने के लिए गठबंधन किया है।

Present Perfect Tense: FAQs

Q.1 What is the Present Perfect Tense?

Ans. The present perfect tense is a tense used to describe an action that has already happened at a given time. It employs verb + ed as the primary verb and an auxiliary verb and past participle.

Q.2 What is the formation of the Present Perfect Tense?

Ans. The Formation of the Present Perfect Tense is
Subject + have/has + past participle (third form of the verb) + rest of the sentence.

Q.3 Which auxiliary verb is used in the Present Perfect Tense?

Ans.  The two auxiliary verbs used are ‘have’ and ‘has’. When the pronouns ‘I,’ ‘you,’ ‘they,’ or plural nouns act as the subject in a sentence, ‘have’ is used. When the pronouns ‘he’, ‘she,’ ‘it,’ or singular nouns act as the subject, ‘has’ is used.

Q.4 What is the difference between the Present Perfect and Simple Past?

Ans. The distinction between the present perfect and the simple past tenses:-

  • When discussing events that have already ended, the simple past is used. The event will take place at a specific time, and its details are known.
  • Generally speaking, the present perfect denotes an action that began in the past and continues up until the present or has some effects in the present.

Q.5 Give some examples of the Present perfect Tense.

Ans.

  • Shamita has not reached home yet.
  • All the students have finished their assignments.
  • Rina has eaten all the mangoes.
  • have not gone to watch the movie yet.
  • Has she still not done the work?

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