Partition of Bengal in 1905: The British Raj conducted the first Partition of Bengal in 1905, which was a territorial reform of the Bengal Presidency. The rearrangement divided the predominantly Muslim eastern regions from the predominantly Hindu western regions. It was announced by Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India, on July 19, 1905, and enacted on October 16, 1905, but it was undone just six years later.
The division of Bengal was carried out under Viceroy Lord Curzon’s presidency.
Hindus in West Bengal protested the partition, claiming that it would relegate them to a minority in a region that would include Bihar and Orissa. Hindus were incensed by what they viewed as a “divide and rule” approach, despite Curzon’s assurances that it would increase administrative efficiency. The Muslims were inspired by the separation to build their own national organisation based on communal lines. In reaction to the Swadeshi movement’s riots in protest of the policy, Lord Hardinge unified Bengal in 1911 to assuage Bengali feelings.
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Partition of Bengal ( 1905 ): The reason for partition and divide and rule policy
This was seen by Bengal’s English-educated middle class as the dismemberment of their motherland as well as a tactic to weaken their power. Lord Curzon refused to agree to Surendranath Banerjee’s proposal that the non-Bengali states of Orissa and Bihar be separated from Bengal rather than fracturing two segments of the Bengali-speaking society. Banerjee conceded that the petitions were ineffectual, and as the partition date approached, he advocated for stronger measures including boycotting British goods. Instead of calling this a boycott, he prefers to call it swadeshi.
Other targets, according to Banerjee, should have been included. Government schools were scorned, and on the day of separation, October 16, 1905, schools and shops were blockaded. Units of the police and army were dispatched to disperse the demonstrators. This was followed by a series of violent clashes. When they learned that John Morley had been nominated as Secretary of State for India, Congress President G.K. Gokhale, Banerji, and others ceased supporting the boycott. They trusted him because they thought he would sympathise with the Indian middle class, and they expected the partition to be reversed through his involvement.
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On which date in 1905 did the partition of Bengal come into force
On July 19, 1905, The controversy over Curzon’s controversial decision to separate Bengal, as well as the development of the ‘Extremist’ party in the Congress, gave the ultimate impetus for separatist Muslim politics. Separate elections for Muslims and Hindus were created in 1909. Many members of both communities have previously called for national unity among Bengalis. Different political communities arose as a result of separate electorates, each with its own political agendas. Due to their overall numerical strength of roughly twenty-two to twenty-eight million, Muslims also dominated the Legislature. Muslims began to demand the establishment of Muslim-only states.
What was the real reason for Bengal’s partition?
Though the British government claimed that Bengal was too large a political unit and needed to be partitioned in order to be administered effectively, the real reason for the partition was that the British government wanted to drive a wedge between Bengal’s Hindus and Muslims.
When did the partition of Bengal take place?
The 16th of October, 1905, is a significant occasion in Bengal’s history. Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India, chose to partition the territory so that the western part would be home to the Hindu majority and the eastern section would be home to the Muslim majority.
Who was against the partition of Bengal?
The amalgamation of western Bengal with Orissa and Bihar reduced Bengali speakers to a minority. The partition was supported by Muslims led by Dhaka’s Nawab Sallimullah, while Hindus opposed it.
What caused India to break apart into Pakistan and Bangladesh?
Part of the partition was caused by Syed Ahmed Khan’s two-nation theory, which was based on religious issues.
What was the anti-partition movement all about?
The Anti-Partition Movement was a massive anti-partition demonstration that took place in Calcutta’s Town Hall. It was declared a day of national mourning across Bengal by the protest movement’s leaders.