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Hindi Varnamala, Letters, Alphabets in Hindi (हिंदी वर्णमाला)

The Hindi Varnamala is known as the Devanagari script. It consists of 11 vowels and 35 consonants, along with various diacritic marks to represent specific sounds. Hindi is the most widely spoken language in India and the third most used language in the world. It is also one of the official languages of India.

As we can see its influence over the world, it is therefore important to learn this language. Hindi is a compulsory subject in many states in India, so, kids are required to memorize all the vowels and consonants of the Hindi language for further studies. Here is a list of the Hindi Varnamala, including the vowels and consonants:

Hindi Varnamala

Hindi Varnamala: When a child is born, he/she doesn’t know to speak. It’s the toughest thing to understand a newborn. But with time, a child starts to show their emotions, whether it is verbally or non-verbally. However, speaking and communicating is normal human behaviour and that is innate, but a language is something that a human adopts with time as per the environment they live in.

Speaking a language can be learnt later or sooner, but writing them out or being able to comprehend them by reading them takes knowledge and even skills with time. As the mother tongue of most Indians is Hindi, it is important for a child to learn it from an early age. Learning your mother tongue is the first step towards increasing your knowledge curve.

Hindi Letters (Hindi Alphabets in Hindi)

Hindi Varnamala (Hindi Letters) contains some vowels and consonants. All Hindi alphabets are given below.

Hindi Varnamala Vowels (स्वर):

  1. अ (a)
  2. आ (ā)
  3. इ (i)
  4. ई (ī)
  5. उ (u)
  6. ऊ (ū)
  7. ऋ (ṛ)
  8. ए (e)
  9. ऐ (ai)
  10. ओ (o)
  11. औ (au)

Hindi Varnamala Consonants (व्यंजन):

  1. क (ka)
  2. ख (kha)
  3. ग (ga)
  4. घ (gha)
  5. ङ (ṅa)
  6. च (cha)
  7. छ (chha)
  8. ज (ja)
  9. झ (jha)
  10. ञ (ña)
  11. ट (ṭa)
  12. ठ (ṭha)
  13. ड (ḍa)
  14. ढ (ḍha)
  15. ण (ṇa)
  16. त (ta)
  17. थ (tha)
  18. द (da)
  19. ध (dha)
  20. न (na)
  21. प (pa)
  22. फ (pha)
  23. ब (ba)
  24. भ (bha)
  25. म (ma)
  26. य (ya)
  27. र (ra)
  28. ल (la)
  29. व (va)
  30. श (śa)
  31. ष (ṣa)
  32. स (sa)
  33. ह (ha)

Apart from these basic characters, the Devanagari script also includes various diacritic marks and conjunct consonants, which are formed by combining two or more consonants. This combination creates different sounds in the Hindi language.

Hindi Alphabets

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language that is primarily spoken in Northern India. The language, Hindi, is written in the Devanagari script. Hindi is one of the two official languages of India. Not only that, but Hindi is also one of the 4 most spoken languages in the world. The above-mentioned sentences are enough to claim the popularity this language has. So how does one learn Hindi, the language of so many people around the earth?
As mentioned earlier, speaking a language can be learnt by humans easily, by hearing or listening, but what is more difficult is comprehending the same without an error. If a person has always been surrounded by people speaking Hindi, it’s much easier to understand the language, however, dramatically, they too can be wrong at times. To speak the correct language we need to start from the basics. So what do we learn first in a language? The first step of learning a language is the alphabets of the same. For detailed knowledge of Hindi grammar, it is very important to have knowledge of various components of Hindi Varnmala, vowels in Hindi(Swara), consonants in Hindi(Vyanjana), Ghosh, Aghosh, Alpaprana and Aspiran. So let’s get started with the Hindi language and its alphabets.

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Hindi Alphabet- स्वर

In Hindi, “Swar” refers to vowels. The Hindi language has a total of 13 Swar, which are essential for forming words and sentences. These Hindi Alphabet swar are given below.

हिंदी वर्णमाला- स्वर




Hindi Alphabet- व्यंजन

In Hindi, “व्यंजन” (Vyānjan) refers to consonants, which are a major component of the Hindi alphabet. The Hindi script, Devanagari, comprises 33 main consonants. These consonants are categorized based on the way they are pronounced, like gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, and labials. They are an integral part of forming words in Hindi and are used in combination with vowels to create a variety of sounds and words in the language. The understanding and correct pronunciation of these consonants are essential for fluency in Hindi.Hindi Alphabet vyanjan are given below.

हिंदी वर्णमाला- व्यंजन




Hindi Alphabet- हिंदी वर्णमाला- मात्राएँ

Hindi Alphabet martraye are given below.

हिंदी वर्णमाला- मात्राएँ


Hindi Varnamala Letters- Images and Chart

The Hindi Letters Chart are given below.

Hindi Varnamala, Letters, Alphabets in Hindi(हिंदी वर्णमाला)_30.1
Hindi Varnmala

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Hindi Varnamala (Hindi Alphabets) Total Letters

The set of arrangements of the alphabets in Hindi is collectively known as the Varnmala. All the letters of the Hindi alphabet have been divided into two parts in grammar – vowels and consonants. Vowels are known as ‘Swara’ and Consonants are known as ‘Vyanjana’. Hindi Varnmala consists of 48 letters, out of which 11 are vowels, the number of consonants is 33 (while the total number of consonants is 35).

Hindi Varnamala mai kitne Swar hote hain

While pronouncing these letters of the Hindi Varnmala, the breath comes out easily through the throat or palate, without stopping. They are called ‘swaras’.
अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ, ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, ऑ
Anusvara: अं
Visarga: अ:

Hindi Varnamala mai kitne Varn hote hain

While pronouncing these letters of the Hindi Varnmala, the breath faces some kinds of obstructions in between through the throat or palate. They are called ‘vyanjana’. There is a vowel in the pronunciation of each consonant. A consonant cannot be pronounced without A.
क, ख, ग, घ, ङ (क़, ख़, ग़)
च, छ, ज, झ, ञ (ज़)
ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण, (ड़, ढ़)
त, थ, द, ध, न
प, फ, ब, भ, म (फ़)
य, र, ल, व
श, श़, ष, स, ह
Combined consonants: क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ, श्र

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Hindi Alphabets (Varnamala)

There are two types of letters in each alphabet, vowel letters, and consonant letters. Alphabets are divided into three classes based on the different ways of using vowels and consonants of that language:

  • The orthodox alphabet – such as the Greek alphabet. The Greek alphabet has vowels that are used with only some particular consonants.
  • Abugida – Such as in Devanagari in which vowels are added to consonants by means of quantity symbols. Quantity symbols are called diacritic in English.
  • Abjad – Such as the Phoenician alphabet, in which vowels with consonants have neither letters nor volume signs, but the reader has to look at the context to guess which vowels to use. Although the Arabic-Persian script has a system of quantity marks, but sometimes they are not written, due to which those scripts become somewhat like abjads in use.

Hindi Varnamala Numerals

Numerals are represented in the Hindi language in a different way than the English language. The Hindi varnamala numerals also consist of 10 digits. These numerals (along with their English equivalent) is shown below.

  • ० [zero]
  • १ [1]
  • २ [2]
  • ३ [3]
  • ४ [4]
  • ५ [5]
  • ६ [6]
  • ७ [7]
  • ८ [8]
  • ९ [9]

How Many Letters are in Hindi Alphabet

The Devanagari script, often known as the Hindi alphabet, has 48 letters. Sanskrit, Marathi, and Nepali are just a few of the numerous Indian languages that may be written with these letters. Vowels and consonants are both present in the script.

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How to read the Hindi alphabet?

Hindi Varnamala has a different number of letters divided on the basis of pronunciation and writing. On the basis of pronunciation, Hindi Alphabet has 45 letters in which 10 vowels and 35 consonants are there. However, on the basis of writing, there are 52 letters in which 13 vowels, 35 consonants and 4 combined consonants are there.

What is Hindi Varnamala?

The set of arrangements of the alphabet in Hindi is known as the Hindi Varnmala.

How many types of 'swara' is there in Hindi Varnmala?

There are 3 types of vowels in the Hindi language: Hrsva vowels, Deergh vowels and Plut vowels.

How many vowels are there in Hindi?

There are 11 vowels in the Hindi alphabet, out of which 4 are Hrsva and 7 are long vowels.

How many consonants are there in Hindi language?

On the basis of writing, there are 52 letters, of which there are 35 consonants and 4 combined consonants.