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Principles of Management Class 12 Notes, Project, Definition, Meaning

Principles of Management

Principles of management are fundamental concepts and guidelines that provide a framework for effective and efficient management practices. They serve as a foundation for decision-making, organizing, planning, leading, and controlling within an organization. There are several principles of management that have been developed over the years, and while different experts and scholars may emphasize slightly different principles.

Principles of Management Definition

The definition of management principles can be derived from those of pure science. The tenets of management are not as solid as those of pure science. Given the demands of the role and the fact that they deal with human characteristics, they should be used creatively. Both human behavior and technological advancements, as well as business, are never static.

Principles of Management Meaning

All of the principles must thus adapt to these changes. For example,

  • A manager could only manage a limited workforce within a narrow geographic area in the absence of information and communications technology (ICT).
  • The use of ICT has enhanced managers’ capacity to exert control over sizable corporate domains dispersed throughout the world.
  • Knowledge that these are not aids in fostering an understanding of how management ideas are applied.
  • The management principles should be chosen from the management methods. Techniques are ways or approaches that include a series of procedures to be done in order to accomplish desired outcomes.
  • While learning techniques, principles serve as a set of rules for making decisions or taking action. In addition, it is important to recognise the distinction between principles and values.

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Principles of Management Class 12 Project Importance

(1) Providing Managers With Useful Insights Into Reality

  • Applying management principles enables managers to make the best choices at the appropriate times.
  • These management principles aid managers in addressing a variety of issues in a dynamic company environment.

(2) Optimum Utilization of Resources & Effective Administration

  • Resources are always finite and in short supply.
  • By employing management principles, managers may concentrate on making the best use of their resources to produce results at the lowest possible cost and with the highest possible profit.
  • It achieves successful administration by allocating resources (both material and human) in the most efficient manner.

(3) Scientific Decisions

  • Applying management principles improves a manager’s realism, thoughtfulness, justification, and lack of bias.
  • The choices made in accordance with management principles are reviewed and assessed objectively.

(4) Meeting Changing Business Environment

  • Although the principles are meant to be basic recommendations, they are changed and aid managers in adapting to the environment’s shifting demands.


With the rapid rise of online market sellers, offline vendors have also started selling their goods on online platforms.

(5) Fulfilling Social Responsibility

  • The organization’s goals can be accomplished more successfully and effectively with the aid of management principles, which also direct managers in upholding their obligations to the organization’s workers and the community.


Fair compensation and equitable principles guarantee social justice for workers and conformity with governmental standards for corporate social responsibility, which enhances the company’s reputation in society.

(6) Management Training, Education and Research

  • Training, research, and development in the field of management all start with a solid understanding of the fundamentals.
  • These ideas serve as the foundation for management education, aiding future managers’ preparation at management colleges.
  • These Principles support managers in making the best judgments and taking the appropriate actions.
  • The managers’ application of these concepts spurs innovation in the management area.


It is the result of such training, education and research that Sunil Mittal could run Airtel in a successful way.

Principles Of Management Notes

The fourteen principles of management created by Henri Fayol are explained below.

1. Division of Work-

Henri believed that segregating work in the workforce amongst the worker will enhance the quality of the product. Similarly, he also concluded that the division of work improves the productivity, efficiency, accuracy and speed of the workers. This principle is appropriate for both the managerial as well as a technical work level.

2. Authority and Responsibility-

These two components make up management. Responsibility holds the management accountable for the work carried out under their direction or leadership, while authority enables them to function effectively.

3. Discipline-

Nothing can be done without discipline. Any project or management must uphold this fundamental principle. The job of management is made simple and thorough by good performance and intelligent interconnection. Good behaviour on the part of employees aids in the smooth development and advancement of their professional careers.

4. Unity of Command-

This implies that an employee should report to a single employer and obey his orders. An employee faces a conflict of interest and may become confused if they are required to obey more than one employer

5. Unity of Direction-

Everyone involved in an activity should have a common objective. This means that everyone employed by a company should have the same objectives and driving forces that will make work simpler and make achieving the stated objectives easier.

6. Subordination of Individual Interest-

This suggests that an organisation should work cooperatively to advance corporate interests as opposed to individual ones. be a slave to an organization’s objectives. This refers to a company’s entire chain of command.

7. Remuneration-

This is crucial in boosting employee motivation in a business. You may receive monetary or non-monetary compensation. However, it should take into account the work that each person has made.

8. Centralization-

Management or any other authority charged with making decisions in any organisation should be impartial. However, how big an organisation is will determine this. The need for harmony in the hierarchy and power structure was emphasised by Henri Fayol.

9. Scalar Chain-

Fayol emphasises that the hierarchy stages should go from highest to lowest in his discussion of this notion. This is essential so that each employee is aware of their direct superior and has access to them in case of emergency.

10. Order-

In order to preserve a positive workplace culture, a corporation should have a well defined work order. More positive productivity will be boosted by the positive environment at work.

11. Equity-

Respect and equality should be accorded to all employees. A management must ensure that none of their staff experience discrimination.

12. Stability-

If a worker feels comfortable in their position, they perform at their best. The management has a responsibility to provide job security to its staff.

13. Initiative-

The management should support and motivate staff members who take the initiative within the company. They will become more interested and valuable as a result.

14. Esprit de Corps-

The management has a duty to regularly encourage and assist one another among their staff. Gaining mutual respect and trust will result in a successful outcome and productive workplace.


Prediction, planning, decision-making, organisation and process management, control, and coordination are all facilitated by these 14 management principles.

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Principles of Management by Fayol

Organizations had to deal with management in practice in the previous century. Large organizations, such as industrial factories, had to be managed in the early 1900s as well. There were few (external) management tools, models, and procedures available at the time.

The basic foundations for modern scientific management were laid by scientists like Henri Fayol.

The foundation factors for successful management are these first notions, also known as management principles. Fayol investigated this thoroughly and established the 14 management concepts as a result. The book ‘General and Industrial Management’ (1916) contained Fayol’s management and research principles.

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14 Principles of Management Class 12 Project

The 14 Management Principles are assertions that are founded on a fundamental fact. These management concepts serve as a framework for making decisions and taking management activities. They are created by observations and analyses of occurrences that managers face in the field. After years of research, Henri Fayol was able to synthesis 14 management concepts.

1st Principles of Management- Division Of Work

Employees are specialized in different areas and have distinct talents in practice. Within the knowledge fields, several levels of expertise can be identified.

This is supported by personal and professional development. Specialization, according to Henri Fayol, improves employee efficiency and output. Furthermore, the workforce’s expertise improves their accuracy and speed. This management principle, one of the 14 management principles, applies to both technical and managerial tasks.

2nd Principles of Management- Authority

Management has the authority to give commands to people in order to get things done in an organisation. Naturally, with tremendous power comes responsibility. The accompanying power or authority, according to Henri Fayol, gives management the authority to issue commands to subordinates.

As performance may be traced back to accountability, it is vital to reach agreements on this. To put it another way, authority and accountability are two sides of the same coin.

3rd Principles of Management- Discipline

Nothing can be accomplished without discipline. In the form of good conduct and courteous interactions, it is frequently an element of a mission statement and vision’s fundamental principles. This management idea is critical and is viewed as the oil that keeps an organization’s motor running smoothly.

4th Principles of Management- Unity Of Command

The management idea of “unity of command” states that each individual employee should receive orders from a single manager and report to that manager.

If an employee is assigned duties and related responsibilities by more than one boss, it may cause misunderstanding, which could lead to employee conflict. It is easier to determine who is responsible for mistakes when this approach is applied.

5th Principles of Management- Unity Of Direction

It is all about focus and unity. Every employee performs the same tasks that are tied to the same goals. All activities must be completed by a single team. A plan of action must be drawn out to describe these actions.

The manager is ultimately responsible for this plan, and he keeps track of the actions that have been outlined and scheduled. Employee efforts and coordination are two major focus areas.

6th Principles of Management- Subordination Of Individual Interest

In any organisation, there are always a variety of interests. Personal interests must be subordinated to the organization’s interests, according to Henri Fayol, in order for an organisation to work properly.

7th Principles of Management- Remuneration

This management theory, one of the 14 management principles, contends that salary should be adequate to keep people engaged and productive.

Non-monetary remuneration (a compliment, more responsibility, credits) and monetary payment are the two types of reward (compensation, bonus or other financial compensation). Finally, it’s about recognising and rewarding the efforts that have been made.

8th Principles of Management- Centralization

The term “centralization” refers to the concentration of decision-making authority at the top of the organisation (executive board). Henri Fayol defines decentralisation as the sharing of decision-making authority with lower levels (middle and lower management). According to Henri Fayol, a company should work harder and strive for a good balance in this area.

A company’s management and decision-making authority must be properly balanced. This is determined by the organization’s volume and size, as well as its hierarchy.

9th Principles of Management- Scalar Chain

In any given organisation, there is a hierarchy. Senior management (executive board) through the lowest levels of the firm are all affected. According to Henri Fayol’s “hierarchy” management philosophy, there should be a clear line between authority and authority (from top to bottom and all managers at all levels).

10th Principles of Management- Order

Employees in a company must have the correct resources at their disposal in order to work properly. Aside from social order, the work environment must be safe, clean, and orderly.

11th Principles of Management- Equity

An organization’s basic values frequently include the idea of equity. Employees must be treated with respect and equality, according to Henri Fayol. To do things correctly, employees must be in the correct place inside the company.

12th Principles of Management- Stability

This management principle deals with personnel deployment and management, which must be balanced with the organization’s service offerings.

13th Principles of Management- Initiative

Employees should be permitted to express fresh ideas, according to Henri Fayol, under this management approach. This increases interest and participation while also adding value to the organisation.

14th Principles of Management- Esprit de Corps

Esprit de corps aids in the development of culture and fosters a climate of mutual trust and understanding.

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प्रिंसिपल ऑफ मैनेजमेंट

प्रबंधन के सिद्धांत: हेनरी फेयोल द्वारा बनाए गए प्रबंधन के चौदह सिद्धांतों को नीचे समझाया गया है।

1. कार्य विभाजन-

हेनरी का मानना ​​​​था कि श्रमिकों के बीच कार्यबल में काम को अलग करने से उत्पाद की गुणवत्ता में वृद्धि होगी। इसी तरह, उन्होंने यह भी निष्कर्ष निकाला कि कार्य का विभाजन श्रमिकों की उत्पादकता, दक्षता, सटीकता और गति में सुधार करता है। यह सिद्धांत प्रबंधकीय और तकनीकी कार्य स्तर दोनों के लिए उपयुक्त है।

2. अधिकार और उत्तरदायित्व-

ये दो घटक प्रबंधन बनाते हैं। जिम्मेदारी प्रबंधन को उनके निर्देशन या नेतृत्व में किए गए कार्यों के लिए जवाबदेह रखती है, जबकि प्राधिकरण उन्हें प्रभावी ढंग से कार्य करने में सक्षम बनाता है।


3. अनुशासन-

अनुशासन के बिना कुछ भी नहीं किया जा सकता है। किसी भी परियोजना या प्रबंधन को इस मूलभूत सिद्धांत को कायम रखना चाहिए। अच्छे प्रदर्शन और बुद्धिमान इंटरकनेक्शन द्वारा प्रबंधन का काम सरल और संपूर्ण बना दिया जाता है। कर्मचारियों की ओर से अच्छा व्यवहार उनके पेशेवर करियर के सुचारू विकास और उन्नति में सहायता करता है।

4. कमान की एकता-

इसका तात्पर्य यह है कि एक कर्मचारी को एक ही नियोक्ता को रिपोर्ट करना चाहिए और उसके आदेशों का पालन करना चाहिए। एक कर्मचारी को हितों के टकराव का सामना करना पड़ता है और यदि उसे एक से अधिक नियोक्ता का पालन करना आवश्यक हो तो भ्रमित हो सकता है

5. दिशा की एकता-

किसी गतिविधि में शामिल प्रत्येक व्यक्ति का एक समान उद्देश्य होना चाहिए। इसका मतलब यह है कि किसी कंपनी द्वारा नियोजित प्रत्येक व्यक्ति के पास समान उद्देश्य और प्रेरक शक्तियाँ होनी चाहिए जो काम को सरल बना दें और बताए गए उद्देश्यों को प्राप्त करना आसान बना दें।

6. व्यक्तिगत हित की अधीनता-

इससे पता चलता है कि एक संगठन को व्यक्तिगत हितों के विपरीत कॉर्पोरेट हितों को आगे बढ़ाने के लिए सहकारी रूप से काम करना चाहिए। एक संगठन के उद्देश्यों के गुलाम बनें। यह एक कंपनी की पूरी श्रृंखला की कमान को संदर्भित करता है।

7. पारिश्रमिक-

किसी व्यवसाय में कर्मचारी प्रेरणा को बढ़ाने के लिए यह महत्वपूर्ण है। आपको मौद्रिक या गैर-मौद्रिक मुआवजा मिल सकता है। हालांकि, इसमें प्रत्येक व्यक्ति द्वारा किए गए कार्यों को ध्यान में रखना चाहिए।

8. केंद्रीकरण-

किसी भी संगठन में निर्णय लेने के आरोप में प्रबंधन या किसी अन्य प्राधिकरण को निष्पक्ष होना चाहिए। हालांकि, कोई संगठन कितना बड़ा है, यह यह तय करेगा। पदानुक्रम और शक्ति संरचना में सामंजस्य की आवश्यकता पर हेनरी फेयोल ने जोर दिया था।

9. अदिश श्रृंखला-

फेयोल इस बात पर जोर देते हैं कि इस धारणा की चर्चा में पदानुक्रम के चरणों को उच्चतम से निम्नतम तक जाना चाहिए। यह आवश्यक है ताकि प्रत्येक कर्मचारी अपने प्रत्यक्ष वरिष्ठ से अवगत हो और आपात स्थिति में उन तक पहुंच सके।

10. आदेश-

एक सकारात्मक कार्यस्थल संस्कृति को बनाए रखने के लिए, एक निगम के पास एक अच्छी तरह से परिभाषित कार्य आदेश होना चाहिए। कार्यस्थल पर सकारात्मक वातावरण से अधिक सकारात्मक उत्पादकता को बढ़ावा मिलेगा।

11. इक्विटी-

सभी कर्मचारियों को सम्मान और समानता दी जानी चाहिए। एक प्रबंधन को यह सुनिश्चित करना चाहिए कि उनका कोई भी कर्मचारी भेदभाव का अनुभव न करे।

12. स्थिरता-

यदि कोई कार्यकर्ता अपनी स्थिति में सहज महसूस करता है, तो वे अपना सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्रदर्शन करते हैं। प्रबंधन की जिम्मेदारी है कि वह अपने कर्मचारियों को नौकरी की सुरक्षा प्रदान करे।

13. पहल-

प्रबंधन को कंपनी के भीतर पहल करने वाले कर्मचारियों के सदस्यों का समर्थन और प्रेरित करना चाहिए। परिणामस्वरूप वे अधिक रुचि और मूल्यवान बनेंगे।

14. एस्प्रिट डी कॉर्प्स-

प्रबंधन का कर्तव्य है कि वह नियमित रूप से अपने कर्मचारियों के बीच एक दूसरे को प्रोत्साहित और सहायता करे। आपसी सम्मान और विश्वास प्राप्त करने से एक सफल परिणाम और उत्पादक कार्यस्थल प्राप्त होगा।


भविष्यवाणी, योजना, निर्णय लेने, संगठन और प्रक्रिया प्रबंधन, नियंत्रण और समन्वय सभी इन 14 प्रबंधन सिद्धांतों द्वारा सुगम हैं।


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Who gave the 14 principles of management?

The 14 principles of management were laid by Henri Fayol.

Why are the principles of management important?

The 14 management principles are valuable tools for forecasting, planning, process management, organisation management, decision-making, coordination, and control, and can be used to manage organisations.

What is the significance of Fayol's management principles?

Henri Fayol was a key figure in the development of modern management philosophies. Fayol is known as the "Father of Modern Operations Management Theory." Fayol, like Socrates, believed that management is a universal human activity that can be applied to both the family and the enterprise.

What does initiative mean in terms of management principles?

Employees' initiative refers to the initial move they take toward self-motivation.

What does remuneration mean in terms of management principles?

He is able to meet his basic and additional needs thanks to the money or salary he receives for his work. So that he is satisfied and can perform better, his compensation or salary must be equal to the task he does.

About the Author

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