Everything in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs and is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable is termed as ‘Resource’. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. They transform material available in the environment into resources and use them.
Classification of Resources
Resources can be classified in the following ways:
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international
(d) On the basis of the status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves
(a) On the Basis of Origin – Biotic and Abiotic
Biotic Resources are obtained from the biosphere and have life.
Eg: Human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources.
Eg: rocks and metals.
(b) On the Basis of Exhaustibility – Renewable and Non-Renewable
The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as Renewable or Replenishable Resources. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow.
Eg: Solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.
Non-Renewable Resources occur over a very long geological time. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
Eg: Minerals and fossil fuels.
(c) On the Basis of Ownership – Individual, Community, National and International
Individual Resources are owned privately by individuals. In villages people own lands whereas in urban areas people own plots, houses and other properties.
Eg: Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc.
Community Owned Resources are accessible to all the members of the community.
Eg: Grazing grounds, burial grounds, public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds etc.
National Resources are owned by a nation or country. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation.
Eg: Roads, canals, railways etc.
International Resources are regulated by international institutions. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.
(d) On the Basis of the Status of Development – Potential, Developed Stock and Reserves
Potential Resources are the resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised.
Eg: Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.
Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.
Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are called Stock.
Eg: Hydrogen can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have advanced technology to use it.
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements.
Eg: Water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.
What is Resource Planning
In India, there are some regions which can be considered self-sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels.
What is Resource Planning Definition in India
Resource planning is a complex process which involves:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Resources can contribute to development only when they are accompanied by appropriate technological development and institutional changes. India has made concerted efforts towards achieving the goals of resource planning, right from the First Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
To overcome irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources, resource conservation at various levels is important.
What is Land Resources Planning
Land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems.
Land resources are used for the following purposes:
- Land not available for cultivation
- a) Barren and wasteland
b) Land put to non-agricultural uses
- Fallow lands
- Other uncultivated lands (excluding fallow land)
- Net sown area
Land Use Pattern in India
The use of land is determined
- Physical factors: such as topography, climate, soil types
- Human factors: such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.
Waste land is the land put to other non-agricultural uses which include rocky, arid and desert areas, roads, railways, industry etc. Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it, has resulted in land degradation.
Land Degradation and Conservation Measures
Human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying have contributed significantly to land degradation. Mining sites leave deep scars and traces of over-burdening the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.
Some of the ways through which we can solve the problems of land degradation are:
- Afforestation and proper management of grazing.
- Planting of shelter belts of plants.
- Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
- Proper management of waste lands.
- Control of mining activities.
- Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.
Soil as a Resource
Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
- It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cms in depth. Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc contribute to the formation of soil.
- Parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
- Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil play an important role.
- Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
What is Resource Planning- Important Questions and Answers Class 10th
Q1. What do you understand as a ‘Resource’? Give examples.
- Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs is called a Resource.
- It should be – technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable. Only then, it can be termed as a ‘Resource’.
- Examples are- Minerals, Forests, Fossil Fuels, etc.
Q2. Write the classification of resources on four different bases.
Resources can be classified in the following four ways:
(a) On the basis of Origin:
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility:
(c) On the basis of ownership:
- Individual (Personal)
(d) On the basis of status and development:
Q3. Give any two examples of non-renewable resources.
Non-renewable resources are resources which once get exhausted, cannot be replenished. They take a long geological period of time, i.e., millions of years, in their formation. Their quantity is limited, and they require cautious usage. Example- Minerals, Fossil fuels, etc.
Q4. Explain four types of resources based on ownership and give one example of each type.
Basis of ownership- There are four types of resources:
- Individual Resources- These resources are owned privately by individuals, e.g., farmers own pieces of land or houses. Plantation, pasture lands, water in wells are some resources owned by individuals.
- Community Owned Resources. These resources are accessible to all the members of the community, e.g., village ponds, public parks, playgrounds. These are available for common use.
- National Resources. All the resources within the political boundary of a nation including the territorial water (oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles from the coast) extending into the ocean and resources therein belong to the nation, e.g., all minerals, forests, wildlife, water resources, land etc.
- International Resources. There are international institutions which own and regulate some resources, e.g., The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to the open ocean and no individual country can use or claim rights over these without the concurrence of international institutions. Ex- Minerals in the South China Sea.
Q5. What is the difference between Stock and Reserve?
- Stock- This includes materials in the environment, which have the potential to satisfy human needs, but man does not possess the appropriate technology to access them. We do not have the required technical know-how to use them and that is why they remain unutilized. Ex- Water is a compound of two inflammable gases- hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich energy source but this has not been capitalized upon.
- Reserve- Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical know-how, but their full utilization has not been achieved so as to meet future needs. Example- forest reserves, iron-ore reserves, water in the dams etc.
Q6. “Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence.” Discuss.
What do you understand by ‘sustainable economic development’?
- Sustainable economic development means that development should take place without damaging the environment. Also, development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generation. Hence, there should be development without compromising on future needs. To achieve this, resource planning is necessary to ensure judicious, rational and equitable distribution as well as proper utilization of resources. It is now a prerequisite for sustained quality of life and maintenance of global peace as the environment is a public facility.
Q7. Write about two types of Alluvial Soil.
According to their age, alluvial soils are of two types: Bangar and Khadar.
- Bangar is Old Alluvial Soil while Khadar is New.
- Bangar has a higher kankar nodule concentration than Khadar which has more fine particles.
- Bangar is coarser and found on old river terraces while Khadar is more fertile and is found widely on floodplains.
Q8. Explain three stages of ‘resource planning.’
Three stages of resource planning include:
- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative as well as quantitative estimation/measurement of the resources.
- Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plan.
- Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Q9. Write four institutional efforts made at global level for ‘resource conservation’.
- At the international level, the Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in a systematic way in 1968.
- In 1974, the Gandhian Philosophy was presented by Schumacher in his book “Small is Beautiful”.
- Brundtland Commission Report in 1987, introduced the concept of ‘sustainable development’ and advocated it as a means for resource conservation. This was subsequently published in a book entitled “Our Common Future”.
- In June 1992, the first ‘International Earth Summit’ was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in which 100 heads of States met for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development at the global level.
Q10. Distinguish between each of the following:
(a) Current fallow and other than current fallow land
(b) Waste-land and culturable waste-land
(c) Net sown area and gross cropped area.
- Current fallow land is Land left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year.
Other than current fallow land is Land left uncultivated for the past one to five agricultural years.
- Wasteland- It includes rocky, arid and desert areas which are not in use at present While Culturable wasteland is arable land that is left uncultivated for more than five agricultural years.
- Net Sown Area- It is the total area under cultivation.
Gross Cropped Area- It is the area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area.
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What is Resource Planning- FAQs
Question 1 What is resource planning?
Ans. Resource planning is a strategic approach to ensuring resources are used in the most effective way, across a single project or a portfolio of work.
Question 2 What is the first step of resource planning?
Ans. The first step of resource planning is identifying the resources present in a region.
Question 3 Define ERP ?
Ans. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) covers the techniques and concepts employed for the integrated management of businesses as a whole, from the viewpoint of the effective of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise.