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What Is Power Sharing- Class 10 Briefly Explain

What Is Power Sharing for Class 10

What Is Power Sharing Class 10: The process of distribution of the power of a country or a region amongst the different parts or organs of any particular government such as the judiciary, executive, and legislature can be defined as power sharing. With the help of this process, several countries have achieved stability in the best way on their order of maintaining a political calm. Apart from that, power sharing also involves sharing of power along with the different district levels such as local, state, and union.

What Is Power Sharing Forms?

We are living in a modern world and hence democracy would be an imitation of that as well. So, in this modern world and its democracy, there could be many different forms of power sharing.

A Horizontal Distribution: When it comes to a horizontal distribution of the entire power, there is a division of the power amongst the different organs that are present in the government. A few examples of these organs can include executive, legislature, and judiciary as well. One of the countries that practice this type of power sharing in the Government in India.

 

A Vertical Distribution (Federal Government):

 In this particular case, the power will be shared amongst the different levels of the governments. There is one country that practices this type of sharing of power and it is the United States of America. While different countries practice different ways to share power, all of these methods are pretty effective and important.

 

Sharing Power Amongst Social Groups: 

Here is one of the forms of power-sharing that you need to know about. In this case of sharing the power, it is shared amongst the different types of social groups that are present in any area or region or an entire country. There can be different social groups such as religious associations and linguistic groups as well. One of the main examples of this type of power-sharing is the community government that people use in Belgium.

 

Some Other Types: 

There are also some other types of power-sharing that people need to know about. There are some political parties that often tend to have some power. Also, with the inclusion of pressure groups as well as the movements, the distribution of power is pretty much equal. There are also some other groups that tend to have a similar influence on those who are currently in power.

 

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What Is Power Sharing in Belgium and Sri Lanka Briefly Explain?

To understand majoritarianism and accommodation better, let us take the case of two countries, Sri Lanka and Belgium. Sri Lanka, with its varied population of two crores, is an island country. It has 74 percent of Sinhala-speaking people, who are mostly Buddhists. Out of the remaining population, 18% speak Tamil. This group can be further subdivided into Indian Tamils, who formed 5%, and Sri Lankan Tamils, who comprised 13% and are concentrated in the north and east of the country. 

 

Sri Lanka used the idea of majoritarianism to handle this cultural diversity. After gaining independence in 1948, the Sinhalese majority attempted to remodel Sri Lanka as a Sinhalese nation-state. In 1956, the official language act, popularly known as the Sinhala only act, was enacted. Special policies supporting the Sinhala aspirins for University and government posts were created. Buddhism was made the national religion. 

 

Power Sharing Class 10 CBSE | Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 | Social Science | By Anita maam

 

Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948. The Sinhala community was in the majority so they had formed the government. They also followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. These measures taken by the government gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils. Sri Lankan Tamils felt that constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests. Due to this, the relationship between the Sinhala and Tamil communities become poor. Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs. But their demand was repeatedly denied by the government. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict and turned into a CIVIL WAR. As a result, thousands of people of both the communities have been killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. The civil war ended in 2009 and caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.

Let us now see what Belgium had to face

Belgium is located in northwest Europe. Out of the total population of around 1 crore, 59% speak Dutch and live in the Flemish region. 40% speak French and are settled in the Vilonia region, and 1% speak German. In contrast, the capital city of Brussels has 80% French-speaking people and the remaining 20% speak Dutch. The French-speaking minority in Belgium were wealthy and the Dutch community hated this, leading to tensions during the 1950s and 60s. This friction was highest in Brussels where the Dutch-speaking community was a minority. Unlike Sri Lanka, Belgium took up the approach of accommodation. 

 

Here we see that Belgium gave regard to the feelings of cultural differences, while Sri Lanka forced its domination over the minority class. Belgium ensured stability through its policy of accommodation while in Sri Lanka majoritarianism, even today continues to be a threat to its unity and growth.

 

This is all about power-sharing the way various governments have been formed in due course of time. Dealing with internal communal and religious problems is dealt with such precision. It all depends on what the contemporary sovereign power decides for the people of the country. 

Story of Belgium

Belgium is a small country in Europe with a population of over 1 crore, about half the population of Haryana. Of the country’s total population, 59% speaks Dutch language, 40% of people speak French and the remaining 1% speak German. Look at the map below to know the language variation of Belgium. The minority French-speaking community was rich and powerful, so they got the benefit of economic development and education. This created tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s.

Accommodation in Belgium

In Belgium, the government handled the community difference very well. Between 1970 and 1993, Belgian leaders amended their constitution four times and came up with a new model to run the government.

Here are some of the elements of the Belgian model.

  • The Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.
  • The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government.
  • Brussels has a separate government in which both communities have equal representation.
  • Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

What Is Power Sharing desirable Class 10 Important Questions 

Question 1 After independence, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of which community?

Ans. After independence in 1948, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of Sinhala community.

 

Question 2 Do you think that the steps taken by Shri Lankan Government to establish the supremacy of Sinhalas were justified be long lasting? Give your view point.

Ans. The steps taken by the Sri Lankan government to establish Sinhalas’ supremacy cannot be justified as long lasting because of the following reasons.

  • These steps ignored the interests of a minority community. Even the basic rights were not given to them.
  •  Discrimination based on religion and language further deprived other communities in Sri Lanka.
  •  Repeated denial of the demands further developed distrust and ignited the situation that resulted in a civil war causing terrible setbacks to Sri Lankan social, cultural and economic life.

 

Question 3 Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united’. Justify the statement.

Ans. Sharing of power makes a country more powerful and united because of the following reasons.

Power sharing ensures that all people have a stake in government.

Power sharing ensures maximum participation. It upholds the concept of people’s rule. It always brings better outcomes in democracy. It ensures the political stability in democracy.

Power sharing accommodates diverse groups. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

 

Question 4 Describe any three ‘majoritarian measures’ taken by the Sri Lankan Government to establish Sinhala supremacy.

Ans. The following are the majoritarian measures adopted by the Sri Lankan government to establish Sinhala supremacy.

  •  In the year 1956, an act was passed, which established Sinhala as the official language to be used in Sri Lanka disregarding the minority group of Tamils. The passing of this act created a feeling of alienation among the minority group, i.e. Sri Lankan Tamils and they started to feel left-out from the society.
  • The government then started adopting and formulating government policies that favoured the Sinhala people in government jobs and for university positions, which made the Sri Lankan Tamils feel ousted.
  •  The Sri Lankan Government further proclaimed that they shall foster and protect only Buddhism as their State religion and refused to cater to any other religion disregarding the religion of Sri Lankan Tamils.

 

Question 5 Bring out any two sharp contrasts between Belgium and Sri Lankan democracies.

Ans. Sri Lanka and Belgium are both democratic countries yet have a very diverse social set-up. Both the countries have adopted very different approaches when it comes to power sharing.

  • Belgium produced an ideal example of democratic system. It adopted the policy of accommodation of social and ethics divisions. On the other hand, Sri Lanka also adopted democratic system but followed majoritarian policies.
  •  Under the Belgium model of democracy, power was shared among two ethnic groups. Sri Lanka favoured the interests of the majority Sinhala community.
  • In Belgium, both the groups had equal share in working of government but in Sri Lanka the minority community was isolated.
  •  To maintain political stability and unity, equal representation was provided to both the groups. Apart from that, community governments of both the ethnic groups also existed at the local level. Sri Lanka, however, had no such arrangement.
  •  Belgium’s constitution was amended four times before arriving at a final draft to prevent civil strife. In Sri Lanka, majoritarianism led to civil war for twenty long years.

 

Question 6 What is the official religion of Sri Lanka?

Ans. Buddhism is the official religion of Sri Lanka.

 

Question 7 After independence, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of which community?

Ans. Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of the Sinhala community after independence.

 

Question 8 Explain the three ways by which Belgium has accommodated the existing regional differences and cultural diversities.

Ans. When the Belgian leaders recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities, they amended their constitution four times in order to accommodate these differences.

 

The following are the ways in which Belgium has accommodated the existing regional differences and cultural diversities.

 

  •  Equal number of ministers: The Government of Belgium has an equal number of Dutch- and French-speaking ministers. This has been done to give equal power to the majority and the minority language speaking groups.
  • Setting up of Community Government: A third kind of government, named the community government, is introduced in addition to the Central and the State Government. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and lingual issues. This government comprises members from all the three communities—Dutch-speaking, French-speaking and German-speaking.
  • Fair share of power: Many powers of the Central government have been given to the state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central government but are independent.
  • Equal representation: In the State Government of Brussels—the capital city—both the French- and Dutch-speaking communities have equal representation.

 

Question 9 Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united. Do you agree with the statement? Why?

Ans. Yes, I agree with the statement. Power sharing makes a country more united.

  • Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
  •  It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order as social conflict often leads to violence and political instability.
  •  Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. The concept of democracy is a system of government of the people, by the people and for the people, which emphasizes on distribution of power among people.
  •  It involves sharing powers with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects, so that the people would be consulted on how they are to be governed.

 

Question 10 Highlight the measures adopted by the Belgium Constitution for the prevention of conflicts in Belgium.

Ans. When the Belgian leaders recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities, they amended their constitution four times in order to accommodate these differences.

The following are the ways in which Belgium has accommodated the existing regional differences and cultural diversities.

 

  • Equal number of ministers: The Government of Belgium has equal number of Dutch- and French-speaking ministers. This has been done to give equal power to the majority and the minority language speaking groups.
  • Setting up of Community Government: A third kind of government, named the community government, is introduced in addition to the Central and the State Government. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and lingual issues. This government comprises members from all the three communities—Dutch-speaking, French-speaking and German-speaking.
  • Fair share of power: Many powers of the Central government have been given to the state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central government but are independent.
  • Equal representation: In the State Government of Brussels—the capital city—both the French- and Dutch-speaking communities have equal representation.

What Is Power Sharing Class 10 in Hindi

सत्ता का बंटवारा क्या है कक्षा 10: किसी देश या क्षेत्र की सत्ता के वितरण की प्रक्रिया को किसी विशेष सरकार के विभिन्न हिस्सों या अंगों जैसे न्यायपालिका, कार्यपालिका और विधायिका के बीच सत्ता के बंटवारे के रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है। इस प्रक्रिया की मदद से कई देशों ने राजनीतिक शांति बनाए रखने के अपने आदेश पर बेहतरीन तरीके से स्थिरता हासिल की है। इसके अलावा, सत्ता के बंटवारे में स्थानीय, राज्य और संघ जैसे विभिन्न जिला स्तरों के साथ सत्ता का बंटवारा भी शामिल है।

पावर शेयरिंग फॉर्म क्या है?

हम एक आधुनिक दुनिया में रह रहे हैं और इसलिए लोकतंत्र भी उसी की नकल होगा। तो, इस आधुनिक दुनिया और उसके लोकतंत्र में सत्ता के बंटवारे के कई अलग-अलग रूप हो सकते हैं।

एक क्षैतिज वितरण: जब पूरी शक्ति के क्षैतिज वितरण की बात आती है, तो सरकार में मौजूद विभिन्न अंगों के बीच शक्ति का विभाजन होता है। इन अंगों के कुछ उदाहरणों में कार्यपालिका, विधायिका और न्यायपालिका भी शामिल हो सकते हैं। भारत में सरकार में इस प्रकार की शक्ति साझा करने का अभ्यास करने वाले देशों में से एक।

 

एक लंबवत वितरण (संघीय सरकार):

इस विशेष मामले में, सरकारों के विभिन्न स्तरों के बीच सत्ता साझा की जाएगी। एक देश है जो इस प्रकार की शक्ति के बंटवारे का अभ्यास करता है और वह है संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका। जबकि अलग-अलग देश सत्ता साझा करने के लिए अलग-अलग तरीकों का अभ्यास करते हैं, ये सभी तरीके काफी प्रभावी और महत्वपूर्ण हैं।

 

सामाजिक समूहों के बीच सत्ता साझा करना:

यहां शक्ति-साझाकरण के रूपों में से एक है जिसके बारे में आपको जानना आवश्यक है। सत्ता के बंटवारे के मामले में, इसे विभिन्न प्रकार के सामाजिक समूहों के बीच साझा किया जाता है जो किसी भी क्षेत्र या क्षेत्र या पूरे देश में मौजूद होते हैं। विभिन्न सामाजिक समूह हो सकते हैं जैसे धार्मिक संघ और भाषाई समूह भी। इस प्रकार की सत्ता-साझाकरण के मुख्य उदाहरणों में से एक सामुदायिक सरकार है जिसका उपयोग लोग बेल्जियम में करते हैं।

 

कुछ अन्य प्रकार:

सत्ता के बंटवारे के कुछ अन्य प्रकार भी हैं जिनके बारे में लोगों को जानना आवश्यक है। कुछ राजनीतिक दल ऐसे हैं जिनके पास अक्सर कुछ न कुछ शक्ति होती है। साथ ही, दबाव समूहों के साथ-साथ आंदोलनों को शामिल करने के साथ, शक्ति का वितरण काफी समान है। कुछ अन्य समूह भी हैं जो उन लोगों पर समान प्रभाव डालते हैं जो वर्तमान में सत्ता में हैं।

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What Is Power Sharing Class 10 -FAQs

Question 1 What is ‘Power Sharing’?

Ans. Power sharing means the distribution of power among the organs of the government such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.

 

Question 2 What are the languages spoken in Belgium?

Ans. Belgium is composed of four language areas: the Dutch language area, the French language area, the German language area (9 municipalities in the east of Belgium) and the bilingual Brussels-Capital area.

 

Question 3 Where is Sri Lanka located?

Ans. Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean, located to the south of the Indian Subcontinent. sprawling over the area of 65,525 Sq. km.

 

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