Rise of nationalism in Europe- Frederic Sorrieu
- He is a French artist, who presented a series of paintings in 1848.
- He visualized his dreams, that is, a world of social and democratic republics.
- In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations. They are identified through their flags and national costume.
- Leading the procession are the USA and Switzerland,which is followed by France and Germany. Following Germany are Austria, Kingdom of the two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- French Revolution
- French revolution in 1789, was the start of nationalism.
- French revolutionaries took many steps to create a feeling of collective identity:
- Innovative ideas such as Le citoyen and La Partie
- Creation of a new French flag.
- Election of National Assembly, also renaming from estate general to National Assembly.
- The administrative system which is consolidated.
- Abolishing of customs and internal duties.
- Uniform weights and measures were introduced.
- French was getting a common language.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Napoleonic Code
- Napoleon destroyed France democracy.
- Introduction of Civil code 1804, which was called Napoleonic code.
- Features of this code are:
- Abolishing of all birth rights and privileges.
- Establishment of equality before the law.
- Security of right to property.
- Guild restrictions were removed.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- New Middle Class
- Politically as well as socially, aristocrats were dominant as far as population is concerned.
- Peasants were the majority in the population.
- Since industrialization in England, a new social class known as working class was emerged.
- It included artisans, industrialists, businessmen and so on.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Liberalism
- Property owning men were only given the right to vote or getting elected.
- Each and every women and property-less men were restricted from all political rights.
- It is derived from Latin word ‘root liber’, it means to be free.
- For the end of clerical privilege, autocracy the liberal nationalism was stood alive.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- A New Conservatism After 1815
- Major European powers in 1815: Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria had defeated Napoleon.
- They use to meet in Vienna to draw up a European settlement called as treaty of Vienna.
- As per this treaty:
- Power was restored by the Bourbon dynasty.
- During the Napoleonic wars, France lost all its territories.
- 39 states of the German Confederation were formed by Napoleon, left untouched.
- On the French boundary, borders were made to prevent France from expanding.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- The Revolutionaries
- Born in Genoa in 1807.
- Was a member of secret society of carbonate.
- He established 2 secret societies: Young Europe in Berne and Young Italy in Marseilles.
- The main aim was to unify Italy in a republic.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- The Age of Revolution: 1830-1848
- Bourbon kings have overthrown to set up a constitutional monarchy in July 1830.
- Greece was struggling for independence which was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
- Greece was declared as an independent nation in Treaty of Constantinople signed in 1832.
- National feeling was the main focused area.
- German philosopher, Johan Gottfried discovered the culture in common people through music, dance and folk poetry.
- There were fewer jobs and more people.
- Due to the rise in food costs and bad harvesting, widespread pauperism in the country.
- Silesia weavers in 1845, revolt against contractors.
- Frankfurt parliament was elected in 1848. 831 elected representatives were conveyed in St. Paul Church.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Making of German
- Otto Von Bismarck took a leadership role with the support of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- Kaiser William 1 was the new head of the German empire.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Making of Italy
- Giuseppe Mazzini headed the unification program which got failed.
- Victor Emmanuel II became the new king of unified Italy in 1861.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Britain
- English Parliament seized power from the ruling monarchy.
- British force took Ireland, in 1801 after the revolution failed.
- British Nation was formed and it was facilitated through the mass propagation of English culture.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Nationalism and Imperialism
- Modern Balkans included Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia.
- This area was made explosive by Romantic nationalism, hence, major European wanted to have control over this area.
- So, this led to a series of war called as First World War.
Rise of nationalism in Europe- Important Questions with Answers class 10
Question 1. What was the aim of the French Revolution?
Ans: Following was the aim of French Revolution:
- It was the starting of nationalism in France and the main objective was to build a collective identity in French people.
- Ideas like Le Citoyen and La Patrie promoted the belief of united community that enjoy equal rights in the constitution.
Question 2. Who was the ‘Hero of two Worlds’ and what was his role in the unification of Italy?
Ans: Giuseppe Garibaldi was the ‘Hero of two Worlds’. He was born in 1807 and played important role in the unification of Italy. Two secret societies were formed: Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. According to his belief, Italy wouldn’t have survived as smaller states and it needed to be unified.
Question 3. Write about the two female allegories in the 19th century.
Ans: The two female allegories in the 19th century are:
- Marianne – She was named Marianne in France which was a Christian name, useful to promote the idea of people’s nation. An important feature was inspired by liberty and republic. Soon statues of Marianne became symbol of unity.
- Germania – She was an allegory of Germany. She wore a beautiful crown made up of oak leaves. It was distinctively hung from St. Paul Church ceiling to represent the liberal revolution.
Question 4. Name some of the characteristic features of conservative regimes.
Ans: Characteristic feature of conservative regimes are:
- Intolerant to criticism and dissent.
- Censored press
- Suppressed questions that challenged their legitimacy.
Question 5. Explain the importance of National feeling and Imagination.
Ans: The culture was important for the development of national feelings. It was through arts, poetry, music, stories which created nationalist feelings. Glorification of science was criticized openly and it was replaced by intuitions, sentiments and emotions. This was known as romanticism aimed to create national sentiments. Language also played important role in developing national feelings.
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Rise of nationalism in Europe- FAQs
Question 1 How did European nationalism spread?
Ans. The French Revolution helped introduce nationalism in Europe, for it changed France’s entire system of government, defined citizens’ rights, and developed a set of national symbols. The Revolution also spread nationalism to other countries. Some foreigners embraced the new ideas.
Question 2 What is European nationalism?
Ans. Nationalism in Europe is associated with the birth of the nation state. In some countries, nationalism contributed to the formation of a state through the union of autonomous territories sharing a common culture, like in Germany or in Italy.
Question 3 What are the factors of nationalism?
Ans. The factors that influence nationalism are; educational background, social media, cultural background, involvement in organizations, parental education, parental work, and involvement in religious groups. These factors are not the final factors that influence nationalism.