In this chapter, we will see the beginning of the early societies from the beginning of time. We will also see the different stages of the origin of human beings in this chapter. We will also see the timeline of human origin from 6 MYA to 1BCE.
Class 11 History NCERT Book Chapter 1 Notes- Early Societies: Asia Timeline (6 MYA to 1 BCE)
6 MYA – 5,00,000 BP
Use of Fire (China)
Stone Age site in Riwat (Pakistan)
Homo Sapiens Fossils (West Asia
Domestication of Dog
Cave paintings at Bhimbetka (MP)
Domestication of sheep and goat,
cultivation of wheat and barley
Domestication of pig and cattle
Early agricultural settlements (Baluchistan)
Domestication of chicken, cultivation of
millet and yam
Cultivation of cotton (South Asia); use of
Use of the potter’s wheel, wheel for
Use of Copper
Plough agriculture, cities (Mesopotamia); silk making (China); cultivation of rice
Cities of the Harappan civilization, use of script
Domestication of water-buffalo
Cities, writing, kingdoms (Shang
dynasty), use of bronze (China)
Use of iron
Composition of Rig Veda
Domestication of the one-humped camel
Use of iron, megaliths
Use of coins (Turkey); Persian Empire
Cities and states in several areas, first
coins, spread of Jainism and Buddhism
Class 11 History NCERT Book Chapter 1 Early Societies: Important Terms
Fossils are the remains of extinct plants, animals, and humans that have hardened into rock through time.
A collection of living things that can be crossed to create fecund, healthy offspring that are subdivided into smaller groups called species.
Primates are a subsection of a wider group of mammals that are characterised by a lengthy gestation period followed by birth, the presence of mammary glands, a variety of tooth kinds, and the capacity to regulate body temperature.
Artefacts are things that humans have created, such as tools, works of art, sculptures, engravings, etc.
Anthropology is a scientific field that examines the evolution of human biology and human society.
The study of modern ethnic groups is known as ethnography. It investigates social conventions, gender, political structures, and methods of subsistence.
African apes known as Australopithecus.
A Latin word that signifies “man” is homo.
A human species capable of upright, leg-propelled gait.
Wiseman, also referred to as modern humans, is Homo sapiens.
Class 11 History NCERT Book Chapter 1 Early Societies: Summary
There are numerous phases to the development of humans.
Primates are a subgroup of a wider group of animals.
Primates existed in Asia and Africa between 36 and 24 mya.
Hominoids have been around since roughly 24 mya.
Hominoids, including apes, had relatively smaller brains.
The legs of hominoids were four. They could move around on all four paws, but they couldn’t stand up straight.
In Africa, 5.6 million years ago, Hominoids gave rise to the first hominids.
The Hominidae family included the Hominids.
Hominids are further classified into genus-level lineages.
The word “homo” originally meant “man” in Latin.
About 2.5 million years ago, homo sapiens first appeared.
Their fossils are between 2.2 and 1.8 million years old.
Australopithecus was less clever than Homo habilis.
Homo erectus had a good understanding of how to walk.
Human erectus fossils have been discovered in numerous locations throughout Asia and Africa.
The first modern men were Homo sapiens. They had wisdom and intelligence.
Between 0.19 and 0.16 million years ago, Homo sapiens first appeared.
Homo habilis fossils have been discovered at Tanzania’s Olduvai Gorge and Ethiopia’s Omo.
In Africa and Asia, Homo erectus remains have been discovered.
Humans were highly intelligent. They made use of complex technologies and languages.
Neanderthal men were another name for Homo neanderthalensis because the Neander Valley in Germany is where their fossils have been discovered.
The most significant evidence comes from Terra Amata in Southern France. Thatch was used to build the cottage.
The discovery of fire drastically altered early men’s way of existence.
The locations where the remains of the usage of fire have been discovered include Chesowanja in Kenya and
Swartkrans in South Africa.
Stones were used to craft the first men’s tools. Hand axes, choppers, and flake tools made up the tools.
In Ethiopia and Kenya, the oldest examples of stone tool use were discovered.
Sewing needles were created about 21,000 years ago.
The mastery of speaking aided the man’s cultural advancement.
The sun, moon, rivers, and their everyday activities were all depicted in the paintings created by the first humans.
The walls and roofs of the caverns were painted. The earliest well-known cave paintings are thought to be those at
Altamira, Lascaux, and Chauvet.
Early humans also created little sculptures.
The Hadza people resided close to the salty Lake Eyasi and enjoyed hunting as well.
Altamira is a cave location in Spain.
The cave paintings were discovered by Marcelino Sanz deSautula and his daughter Maria.
Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey recognised Otduvai.
Some historians believe that without knowledge of the previous society, ethnographic evidence cannot be useful.
Ethnography stands for the critical study of modern ethnic society.
Early humans were totally reliant on the natural world.
They hunted and fished to acquire food.
Both tiny and huge fish were captured using hooks and harpoons.
Men first lived in caves, then on trees, and eventually in houses.
Around 400,000 years ago, cave life was first developed by early men.
The first example of a cave home is Cave Lazaret. Southern France is where it is.
Class 11 History NCERT Book Chapter 1 Notes- Early Societies: FAQs
Ques. What is the first chapter of history class 11?
Ans. Class 11 History Chapter 1 of NCERT Book is Early Societies, From the Beginning of Time.
Ques. How many chapters are there in class 11 history?
Ans. There are 11 chapters in the Class 11 NCERT History book
Ques. Is 11th history important for UPSC?
Ans. One of the most important chapters for candidates to fully comprehend in order to perform well in the History for UPSC CSE Section of the UPSC Examination is the Class 11 Topic.
Ques. What do you mean by history class 11?
Ans. History is the study of previous occurrences, individuals, and nations that brought about political, social, and economic changes in society.
Ques. What is history full answer?
Ans. All facets of human civilization are studied in the field of history, which is the study of change over time. Historical advancements include those that are social, political, economic, scientific, technological, medical, intellectual, religious, cultural, and even military.
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What is the first chapter of history class 11?
Class 11 History Chapter 1 of NCERT Book is Early Societies, From the Beginning of Time.
How many chapters are there in class 11 history?
There are 11 chapters in the Class 11 NCERT History book
Is 11th history important for UPSC?
One of the most important chapters for candidates to fully comprehend in order to perform well in the History for UPSC CSE Section of the UPSC Examination is the Class 11 Topic.
What do you mean by history class 11?
History is the study of previous occurrences, individuals, and nations that brought about political, social, and economic changes in society.
What is history full answer?
All facets of human civilization are studied in the field of history, which is the study of change over time. Historical advancements include those that are social, political, economic, scientific, technological, medical, intellectual, religious, cultural, and even military.
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