NCERT Solutions Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy Notes
NCERT Solutions Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy Notes are given in this article. NCERT Solutions Class 10 is the best resource for obtaining a good score in the class 10 board Examination. Here are Adda247 Expert faculty team prepared NCERT Solutions Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy exercises of that chapter for a better grasp of the topics. These NCERT Solutions answer all questions in an easy and simple manner. These solutions will help you understand the concepts covered in the chapter completely. By writing these answers in the exam students will undoubtedly be able to achieve high scores. Keep learning with Adda247.
NCERT Solutions Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy Pdf
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Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy Summary
Class 10 SST Economics 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy: In this chapter, students will know about the Sectors of the Indian Economy. Before going to the NCERT Solutions Class 10 SST Economics 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy, let’s take a review of the topics which are included in Class 10 SST Economics 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy.
Sectors of Economic Activities
Comparing the Three Sectors
How do we count the various goods and services?
Historical Change in Sectors
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sectors in India
The Rising Importance of the Tertiary Sector in Production
Where are most of the people employed?
How to create more employment?
Division of sectors as organized and unorganised
How to protect workers in the unorganized sector?
Sectors in terms of ownership: public and private sectors
NCERT Solutions Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy Questions with Answer
1. Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:
- Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has / has not)
- Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary / agricultural)
- Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organised / unorganised)
- A _________ proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large / small)
- Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a _________ product. [natural /manufactured]
- The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are_________ [independent / interdependent]
Answer a: has not
Answer b: tertiary
Answer c: organized
Answer d: Large
Answer e: natural and manufactured
Answer f: interdependent
2. Choose the most appropriate answer
- The sectors are classified into public and private sectors on the basis of:
- employment conditions
- the nature of the economic activity
- ownership of enterprises
- number of workers employed in the enterprise
Answer: iii. ownership of enterprises
b. Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in _________ sector.
- information technology
Answer: 1. primary
c. GDP is the total value of _________ produced during a particular year.
- all goods and services
- all final goods and services
- all intermediate goods and services
- all intermediate and final goods and services
Answer: 2. all final goods and services
d. In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2013-14 is between _________ per cent.
- 20 to 30
- 30 to 40
- 50 to 60
- 60 to 70
Answer: 3. 50 to 60
3. Match the following:
|Problems faced by farming sector||Some possible measures|
|1. Unirrigated land||(a) Setting up agro-based mills|
|2. Low prices for crops||(b) Cooperative marketing societies|
|3. Debt burden||(c) Procurement of food grains by government|
|4. No job in the off season||(d) Construction of canals by the government|
|5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest||(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest|
|Problems faced by farming sector||Some possible measures|
|1. Unirrigated land||(d) Construction of canals by the government|
|2. Low prices for crops||(c) Procurement of food grains by government|
|3. Debt burden||(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest|
|4. No job in the off season||(a) Setting up agro-based mills|
|5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest||(b) Cooperative marketing societies|
4. Find the odd one out and say why.
(i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
(ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
(iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable
(iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, SAHARA Airlines, All India Radio
While the other three are employed by the private sector, but a travel guide is appointed by the
(ii) vegetable vendor
The others all demand professional qualifications, but vegetable vendor is the only profession that does not.
The other three are employed by the public sector, whereas Cobbler works in the private sector.
(iv) SAHARA Airlines
While the remainder is owned by the Indian government, it is a private company
5. A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.
|Place of work||Nature of employment||Percentage of working people|
|In offices and factories registered with the government||Organised||15|
|Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license||–||15|
|People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers||–||20|
|Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government||–||–|
Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city?
|Place of work||Nature of employment||Percentage of working people|
|In offices and factories registered with the government||Organised||15|
|Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license||Organised||15|
|People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers||Unorganised||20|
|Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government||Unorganised||50|
As per the tabulated data, the percentage of workers in the unorganized sector in this city is 70%.
6. Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.
Answer: Yes. The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors can serve to categorize the various professions that individuals in the nation practice as well as the proportions to which each sector contributes to the development of the nation. It also aids in determining whether the economic sector makes a greater or lesser contribution to the GDP and per capita income of the nation
7. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues that should be examined? Discuss.
Answer: Two of the most crucial elements in a nation’s development are GDP and employment. The total productivity and national income of a nation are determined using GDP and employment data. The determination of per capita income and productivity is aided by a focus on employment and GDP. By focusing on GDP and employment, we may make deductions about the creation of new employment possibilities across various industries and take the appropriate actions as a result.
The following issues should also be looked at:
- Healthcare Facilities
- Food production
- Advancement in technology
8. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.
Answer: Primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors are used to categorize human livelihood activities. When we observe nearby individuals, we can categorize their industry of employment into one of the three categories.
The Municipality workers who clean roads, Vegetable vendors, and farmers belong to the primary sector. Construction workers and factory supervisors are examples of the Secondary sector. Teachers, Bank clerks, and bus drivers all belong to the tertiary sector.
9. How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.
Answer: The tertiary sector is different from other sectors. The tertiary sector’s operations support the growth of the primary and secondary sectors. Despite the fact that the other two sectors generate commodities, this one does not. The primary and secondary sectors benefit from the development of this industry. The tertiary sector’s operations assist or support the production process.
For instance, activities related to transportation, communication, storage, banking, insurance, trade, etc. Similar to how these professions fall within the tertiary sector since they offer services rather than tangible things are doctors, teachers, lawyers, tailors, etc. This industry is often known as the service industry as it is associated with public service
10. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
Answer: Disguised unemployment refers to the underemployment condition in which everyone appears to be employed but is actually forced to work less than they are capable of. Another name for this circumstance is “hidden unemployment.”A situation like this occurs when more individuals are working on a task than is necessary.
- This kind of unemployment is prevalent in the agricultural sector in rural areas.This kind of unemployment is prevalent in the agricultural sector in rural areas. In this case, it is claimed that the additional two workers are experiencing disguised unemployment if a family of five is working on a single plot of land yet only needs three workers.
- This kind of unemployment is most prevalent in the service industries in urban areas, where workers like painters, plumbers, and electricians struggle to find work every day and perform at a lower level than they might.
11. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
Answer: A person is said to be in open unemployment if they are unemployed and making no money at all. This kind of unemployment is typically present in our nation’s industrial sector as well as in the agricultural field.
Disguised unemployment refers to a circumstance in which a person appears to be employed but is forced to work below his or her capacity. In this instance, there are people who appear to be employed but who aren’t. This kind of unemployment is typically seen in the unorganized sector, either because there isn’t always work available there or because there are more individuals working the same job than is necessary.
12.“Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.
No, it is incorrect to claim that the tertiary sector has had little impact on the growth of the Indian economy. The primary sector has been replaced as India’s largest producing sector by the tertiary sector. This industry significantly contributes to the expansion of the Indian economy. Only the tertiary sector helps the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors grow and prosper. This sector provides more employment in past years compared to the other sectors. The foundation of everything, education, falls under the tertiary sector.From over 40% of the GDP in 1973 to more than 50% in 2003, the tertiary sector’s contribution has increased
13. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
Answer: Two distinct groups of people are employed in the service sector in India. These are the people:
1. Highly skilled workers, such as educators, financiers, and IT professionals. These individuals have steady jobs.
2. Less siled workers like vendors, electricians, plumbers, and other workers. These individuals don’t have regular jobs
14. Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer: Yes, there is the exploitation of workers in the unorganized sector. Small, dispersed units that are primarily independent of the government make up the unorganized sector. There are laws and rules, but they are not fully adhered to. Several arguments in favor of this opinion include:
1. There is no job security in the unorganized sector.
2. People are designed to put in a lot of overtime. Having a variable amount of hours worked.
3. The employees put in between 10 and 12 hours per day without getting paid extra.
4. They receive less pay than they are due.
5. There, the laws and rules of the government meant to safeguard the workers are not observed
15. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Answer: The economy can be divided into two segments based on the state of the labour market:
1. Organized Sector: Businesses with government registration in India that offer high wages and an environment that is friendly to employees.
2. Unorganized Sector: Temporary, small, dispersed entities. Less money is paid to workers in this industry. There is no job security.
16. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and unorganized sectors.
Answer: Organized Sector:
Workers in the organized sector benefit from job security, greater pay, access to medical services, a healthy work environment, and permanent employment. They are not required to seek a new job every day. They only need to work a specific amount of hours. The employer is required to pay overtime if they put in more hours. Additionally, they receive a number of extra perks from their employers, such as paid time off, salary during holidays, a provident fund, gratuities, health insurance, etc in the organized sector,
There are no provisions for paid time off, holidays, sick leave, or medical services in the unorganized sector. Various than their daily salaries, they do receive other perks. Low pay, exploitation of workers, lack of overtime pay, lack of medical facilities, and unhealthy working conditions are all present.
17. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.
Answer: The NREGA 2005’s implementation goal was to give everyone in need of employment in rural areas 100days of employment each year. In 200 districts, the Act must be put into effect. According to this Act, the government has promised to provide 100 days of employment each year to everyone who is able to work and has a need for employment. The people will receive unemployment benefits if the government fails in its obligation to create jobs
18. Using examples from your area, compare and contrast the activities and functions of private and public sectors.
Individuals own the assets and businesses in the private sector, whereas the government owns the businesses in the public sector. Instead of taking into account the advantages and interests of its employees, the private sector places more focus on making profits.
On the other hand, the public sector seeks to benefit the general public while also/>making a profit. Government-run banks, hospitals, and railroads are some typical instances of the public sector.IT businesses, shopping centers.
19. Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
|Well-Managed Organisation||Badly-Managed Organisation|
Answer: This question must be answered by the students using their own observations.
20. Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.
Answer: The public sector’s actions are planned for the benefit of the general population. The provision of water, power, transportation, and banking are a few examples of public sector activity. A public project with a long gestation time can only be funded in significant part by the government. To guarantee and affordably supply transportation and medical facilities, The government has taken action to ensure that everyone in the nation can use these amenities at reasonable costs. These public sector initiatives are designed to benefit the general populace. The Government is in charge of giving its residents access to these facilities.
21. Explain how the public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Answer: The sector under the control of the Indian government is known as the public sector.
The government has assumed control of this industry since it encompasses all of the essential needs of the populace, including water, electricity, and irrigation.In the following ways, the public sector aids in a country’s economic growth:
1. It guarantees income and wealth equality and, as a result, promotes balanced regional growth.
2. It promotes the growth of both small and major enterprises and creates jobs in this area.
3. It guarantees that products are readily available and reasonably priced.
4. It encourages quick economic growth by building and expanding infrastructure.
5. It generates job opportunities.
Through its educational and health services, it contributes to the Human Development Index.
22. The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety, and health. Explain with examples.
Answer: The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues:
- Wage: Workers in the unorganized sector need protection in terms of wages. They Don’t rely on a fixed income. They come close to making a life. They do not work all 365 days of the year. For instance, retailers, cobblers, plumbers, etc. These workers ought to receive appropriate and set wages. So that they can develop and aid in the development of the nation.
- Safety: Unorganized sector employees do not have access to safe and healthy working conditions.Workers in the unorganized sector are not given access to hygienic facilities. For instance, those who work in the chemical and mining industries. In this industry
To guarantee these workers a secure working environment, rules and laws should be in place.
- Health: Unorganized sector employees do not receive medical insurance.For the growth and development of the nation, health is a key aspect. The employer is not liable for their health if they are injured while working. As an illustration, there are no medical facilities available for construction workers
23. A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganized sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was Rs 60,000 million. Out of this Rs 32,000 million was generated in the organized sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?
|–||Organized Sector||Unorganized Sector||Total|
|No. of workers||4,00,000||11,00,000||15,00,000|
|Income (Rs)||32,000 million||28,000 million||60,000 million|
The information above makes it evident that even though there are more workers employed in the unorganized sector, the organized sector has higher per capita earnings. About 50% of Ahmedabad’s overall income is produced by the unorganized sector. Government must introduce incentives to encourage the establishment of more organized industries in order to boost employment prospects for the population.
24. The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:
(i) In 2000,
Share of primary sector = 22.22%
Share of secondary sector = 20.73%
Share of tertiary sector = 57.04%
Share of primary sector = 13.94%
Share of secondary sector = 18.70%
Share of tertiary sector = 67.36%
(iii) From this, we can conclude that the primary sector’s contribution to GDP has decreased by almost half, while the tertiary sector’s contribution has increased by 10%. In the past 13 years, the secondary industry has expanded by around 2%.
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