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Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24, CBSE PDF Download

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24: The CBSE Board has unveiled the senior secondary curricula for the next 2023–2024 school year. The Geography course outline for grade 12 has also been made public by the board and can be obtained from their educational website. Geography is an extremely important subject for class 12 students.

The CBSE Class 12 Geography syllabus covers the fundamental principles and their applications through various case studies that are responsible for the variations in the distribution pattern of physical and human features and phenomena across the earth’s surface, as well as the interactions between the physical and human environments at different scales (local, state/regional, national, and global). Learners can use this article to review the CBSE Board’s full Geography curriculum, including course objectives, content, structure, sample questions, and more.

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24

Physical geography, human geography, and regional geography are among the topics included in the class 12 geography syllabus 2023-24. Physical geography issues include the earth’s structure, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

Topics in human geography include population, settlement, agriculture, industry, transportation, and communication. Regional geography issues include India’s physical and human geography, selected countries’ physical and human geography, and global geography. The class 12 geography syllabus 2023-24 also contains a variety of practicals that allow students to put what they’ve learned in class into practice.

The class 12 geography examination paper 2024 consist of two parts: Theory and Practical. The theory examination is conducted for 70 marks while the practical examination is held for 30 marks.


CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24 Course structure

The class 12 geography syllabus 2023-24 is a helpful resource for students who want to work in geography, environmental science, or other related subjects. Students will learn the abilities required to excel in these industries by understanding the material in the syllabus. Understanding the course structure (marking scheme) is necessary as it gives a detailed overview of the chapter-wise marks distribution. It will help students in prioritizing the relevant topics.
The table given below consists of the CBSE Geography Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24 course structure.

Fundamental of Human Geography

Chapter No. Chapter Name Weightage
1 Human Geography 3
2 The World Population Density Distribution and Growth 8
3 Human Development
4 Primary Activities 19
5 Secondary Activities
6 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
7 Transport, Communication and Trade
8 International Trade
Map Work (Based on the identification of features on the World Political Map) 5

India People and Economy

Chapter No. Chapter Name Weightage
1 Population Distribution Density Growth and Composition 5
2 Human Settlement 3
3 Land Resources and Agriculture 10
4 Water Resources
5 Mineral And Energy Resources
6 Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context
7 Transport and Communication 7
8 International Trade
9 Geographical Perspective on selected issues and Problems 5
Map Work (Based on Marking and labelling on a political Map of India) 5

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24 Practical-II

The detailed practical-II list for the geography class 12 syllabus 2023-24 is given below.

Chapter No. Chapter Name Weightage
1 Data-its source and Compilation 18
2 Data Processing
3 Graphical Representation of Data 7
4 Spatial Information Technology 5
Practical Record Book and Viva Voce 5
Total 30

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Geography Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24

The table below consists of a detailed syllabus of geography class 12 syllabus 2023-24

Geography class 12 syllabus 2023-24 Chapter No. and
Geography class 12 syllabus 2023-24 Learning Outcomes
Human Geography
Define the term human geography
Elucidate the Interdependence between Nature and Human beings.
State the fields and subfields of Human Geography and its relation with other branches of
Social Sciences.
Differentiate between Environmental Determinism and Possibilism.
Explain Neo-determinism with examples from real life.
The World
Population distribution, density
and growth
Calculate the density of the population, birth rate and death rate.
Name and define the components responsible for population change.
Understand the stages of population growth in the world using Demographic Transition Theory.
Suggest measures to control population growth.
Define the following terms:
Growth of population, Natural growth of population, Positive, growth of population, Negative growth of population
Differentiate between growth and development
Explain the three basic indicators of human development and measure the level of Human Development.
Describe Human Development Index published by UNDP.
Compare HDI with Human Poverty Index.
Explain the key pillars of human development with examples.
Compare the Income approach, Welfare approach, Basic Needs approach and capability approach to understand the concept of Human Development.
To categorise countries based on their HDI and explain their characteristics.
Primary Activities
Define the following terms:
Economic activities, Primary activities, Red Collar Worker, Pastoral Nomadism
Explain food gathering as an economic activity.
Distinguish between pastoral nomadism and commercial livestock rearing.
Differentiate between primitive subsistence and intensive subsistence farming.
Describe the characteristic features of plantation agriculture as a type of commercial farming.
Analyse why is there a low yield per acre but a high yield per person in areas of extensive grain cultivation?
Compare and contrast the farming practices in the developed urban areas of the world.
Analyse how the model of Kolkhoz introduced in the erstwhile USSR boosted agricultural production.
Examine the reasons for the success of cooperative farming in European countries.
Differentiate between open-cast mining and shaft mining.
Discuss how mining can have an impact on humans and the environment.
Explain key concepts such as large-scale manufacturing, high technology industry, organizational set-up, foot-loose industries, Agribusiness etc.
Identify and explain the factors affecting the location and industry.
Differentiate between different types of industries based on size, raw material, ownership and output.
Differentiate between cottage industry and small-scale industry.
Explain the importance of high-tech industries and the reason for them being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan cities.
Compare large-scale industry and modern high-tech industry with examples
Understands and analyses the interrelationship between industrial development and standard of living.
Tertiary and
Compare and contrast traditional and modern economic activities.
Students correlate tertiary activities and their role in the economic development of a country.
Describe different types of tertiary activities.
Discuss different types of trading centres found in rural and urban areas and the role played by them in the local economy.
Describe quinary activities and their role in advanced economies.
Discuss how tertiary, quaternary and quinary activities have replaced jobs in primary and secondary sectors.
Define the following terms: BPO, Outsourcing, KPO, Departmental Store, Chain Store, Wholesale trading
Transport and
Compare and contrast various modes of transport.
Explain the relationship of transport and communication networks to the economic development of a region.
Describe the major highways and major rail networks of different continents.
Discuss the location and economic significance of Trans- the Siberian Railway, the Trans-Canadian Railway, The Union and Pacific Railway and the Trans-Australian Railway.
Describe the location and the economic importance of the major sea routes of the world.
Discuss how Suez Canal and Panama Canal serve as major gateways of commerce for both the Eastern and the Western World.
Discuss how modern communication systems have made the concept of a global village a reality.
International Trade
Define international trade and describe how it impacts various countries.
Describe the basis of International Trade.
Discuss types of and aspects of International trade.
Explain the term Dumping, Trade liberalisation and
Discuss the impact of WTO on current global trade.
Evaluate how international trade can be detrimental to some Nations.
Analyse how seaports act as chief gateways of International trade

Geography Syllabus Class 12 CBSE 2023-24 Recommended books

It is always better to study from standard resources. Some of the important books for the class 12 Geography that will cover the entire Syllabus for the board examination to be held in 2023-24 are given below

  • NCERT Class 12 Geography Textbook
  • Fundamentals of Human Geography by Surinder Singh
  • India: People and Economy by DK Publishing
  • Selected Countries by DK Publishing
  • World Regional Geography by DK Publishing

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Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24 PDF

The CBSE Class 12 Geography subject is extensive and rigorous. It covers a wide range of topics, from fundamental to advanced, and includes a major practical component that allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge in real-world circumstances. Download here CBSE Class 12 Geography syllabus 2023-24 pdf.

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24

Also check ,

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Hindi Syllabus 2023-24 CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 English Syllabus 2023-24 CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2023-24
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2023-24 CBSE Class 12 History Syllabus 2023-24


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What are the major topics covered in the syllabus?

The major topics covered in the syllabus include:

Fundamentals of Human Geography
India: People and Economy
Selected Countries
World Regional Geography

What are the important topics that students should focus on?

Some of the important topics that students should focus on include:

The definition, scope, and branches of human geography
Population growth, distribution, and composition
Types of settlements, rural settlements, and urban settlements
Types of agriculture, cropping patterns, and irrigation
Location of industries, factors affecting industrial location, and industrial regions
Modes of transportation, transportation networks, and transportation planning
Means of communication, communication networks, and communication planning
Physical features of India, population of India, agriculture in India, industry in India, transportation in India, and communication in India
Physical features of China, population of China, agriculture in China, industry in China, transportation in China, and communication in China
Physical features of Europe, population of Europe, agriculture in Europe, industry in Europe, transportation in Europe, and communication in Europe

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