What is Photosynthesis? – Definition, Equation, Process, Reaction: If we actually start to sit and notice everyday things that take place in the universe, we will surely be dizzy all day! How can we not be? Just look at the plants! They, unlike humans, can’t move, but they make their own food! Isn’t it amazing? Actually, plants make their food with the help of sunlight, water, air and call the process photosynthesis.
In this article, we will be particularly discussing this process called Photosynthesis. If you don’t even have any idea about it, worry not because we got everything covered here!
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What is Photosynthesis Definition?
To know what is photosynthesis, we should be knowing that it is made up of two words. What are the two words that make the word photosynthesis? So the question ‘What is Photosynthesis’ can be partially understood by simply dissecting the word ‘Photosynthesis’. Photosynthesis is made up of ‘Photo ( Greek phōs)’ and ‘Synthesis (synthesis)’. With ‘Photo’ in the word Photosynthesis, it is meant light, while ‘Synthesis’ in Photosynthesis means ‘putting together’ or ‘Process’.
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In simple terms, the definition of Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by plants and other organisms. Chemical energy can be released later to fuel the organism’s activities via cellular respiration, and some of this chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules like sugars and starches. Oxygen is discharged as a waste product, most often. Photosynthesis is carried out by most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and such organisms are called Photoautotrophs, which are creatures that use light to perform photosynthesis. The production and maintenance of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere are mostly due to photosynthesis.
Different species perform photosynthesis in different ways. The process always starts with the absorption of light energy by proteins. Reaction centres are proteins that contain green chlorophyll as well as other coloured pigments/chromophores. These proteins are stored in organelles in plants. Chloroplasts are the name for these organelles. Leaf cells have the highest concentration of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are incorporated in the plasma membrane of bacteria. Some energy is utilised to extract electrons from appropriate compounds in these light-dependent processes. The hydrogen liberated during the splitting of water is utilised to make two more compounds. Short-term energy storage is provided by the chemicals. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the “energy currency” of cells, are the molecules in question.
Photosynthesis Equation and Process
Anoxygenic photosynthetic systems, such as those found in green and purple sulphur bacteria and green and purple nonsulfur bacteria, are likely to have existed in the early stages of evolution. Green sulphur bacteria are likely to have utilised hydrogen and sulphur as electron donors, whereas green nonsulfur bacteria employed different amino and other organic acids. The usage of a variety of nonspecific organic compounds by purple nonsulfur bacteria is compatible with geological evidence indicating Earth’s early atmosphere was strongly reducing at the time.
Oxygenic photosynthesis is the primary source of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. The oxygen disaster is the name given to the first occurrence of this high-energy molecule.
The first photosynthetic organisms most likely developed early in life’s existence. Instead of water, the first photosynthetic organisms most likely utilised reducing chemicals like hydrogen or hydrogen sulphide as electron suppliers. Cyanobacteria appeared after the first photosynthetic organisms, but it was later. Cyanobacteria contributed directly to the oxygenation of the Earth by producing surplus oxygen. It is said to have paved the way for the evolution of sophisticated life. Photosynthesis currently captures around 130 terawatts of energy on a worldwide scale. It consumes around eight times the amount of energy that human civilisation now consumes.
Climate processes rely on photosynthesis. It absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and subsequently binds it in plants, soils, and harvested products.
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Photosynthetic organisms Meaning and Reaction
Photoautotrophs make up the majority of photosynthetic organisms. These organisms can use light energy to directly generate food from carbon dioxide and water. Photoheterotrophs are organisms that utilise carbon dioxide as a supply of carbon atoms in order to carry out photosynthesis. Photoheterotrophs get their carbon from organic substances rather than carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis releases oxygen in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, and this oxygenic photosynthesis has always been the common type of photosynthesis, which is being used by living organisms. While there are some minor differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, the overall process in these organisms is quite similar. Anoxygenic photosynthesis comes in a variety of forms.
Carbon dioxide is transformed into sugars in an endothermic redox mechanism known as carbon fixation. Cellular respiration is the polar opposite of photosynthesis. Cellular respiration is the oxidation of carbohydrates or other nutrients to carbon dioxide, while photosynthesis is the conversion of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate. Carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids are among the nutrients used in cellular respiration, and these nutrients are oxidised to produce carbon dioxide and water, as well as chemical energy to drive the organism’s metabolism. As a result, photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two separate processes that occur in different sequences of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments.
FAQs on What is Photosynthesis?- Definition, Equation, Process, Reaction
In a nutshell, what is photosynthesis?
In a nutshell, photosynthesis is the process through which plants make food and develop by combining water and carbon dioxide. As a result, the plants emit too much oxygen into the atmosphere.
What are the different stages of photosynthesis?
Light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions are the two major stages of photosynthesis.
What is the role of sunlight in the life of plants?
Plants trap light energy with their leaves during photosynthesis and use it to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose, which is used by plants for energy and to manufacture other compounds like cellulose and starch.
In photosynthesis, where does the water originate from?
Photosynthesis, which produces water from the oxygen atoms in carbon dioxide molecules, is also a product.
Why does photosynthesis require sunlight?
Photosynthesis requires energy, which is provided by sunlight.