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स्पर्धा परीक्षांसाठी इंग्लिश ग्रामर: भाग 2 | English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 2: Tenses and Types of Tenses, Voice

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: English Grammar is the most important subject for most Competitive Exams. In this English Grammar for Competitive Exams article, you will get detailed knowledge of Parts of Speech in English Grammar.

English Grammar for Competitive Exams
Category Study Material
Useful for All Competitive Exams
Subject  English Language
Name English Grammar for Competitive Exams
Part 2
Content Covered
  • Tenses and Types of Tenses
  • Active and Passive Voice

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 2

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 2: बऱ्याच स्पर्धा परीक्षेत इंग्लिश हा विषय असतोच. इंग्लिश विषयात जास्तकरून इंग्लिश ग्रामर वर प्रश्न विचारले जातात. महाराष्ट्रातील MPSC राज्यसेवा परीक्षा, MPSC गट ब व गट क च्या परीक्षा, तसेच MPSC घेत असलेल्या इतर स्पर्धा परीक्षामध्ये, त्याचप्रमणे आरोग्य विभाग भरती, जिल्हा परिषद भरती, म्हाडा भरती, MAHATET व इतर स्पर्धा परीक्षांमध्ये इंग्लिश ग्रामरला विशेष महत्त्व आहे. इंग्लिश ग्रामर च्या दररोजच्या सरावाने पेपरमध्ये इंग्लिश विषयात आपल्याला चांगले गुण मिळवू शकतात. याआधी आपण English Grammar for Competitive Exams च्या भाग 1 मध्ये आपण Part of Speech च्या आठ जाती (Parts) व त्याचे उपप्रकार पहिले. आज आपण या लेखात काळ व त्यांचे प्रकार (Tenses and Types of Tenses), आणि प्रयोग (Voice) व Active Voice चे Passive Voice रुपांतर कसे करावे हे  पाहणार आहोत.

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 2 | स्पर्धा परीक्षांसाठी इंग्लिश ग्रामर: भाग 2

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 2: इंग्लिश ही एक सार्वत्रिक भाषा आहे. जी विविध देशातील व देशान्तर्गत लोकांना संपर्क साधण्यास आणि संभाषण सुरू ठेवण्यास मदत करते. लिखित इंग्रजीच्या मुख्य पैलूंपैकी एक म्हणजे English Grammar. व्याकरण योग्य असेल तेव्हाच वाक्यांना अर्थ मिळेल. भाषेत व्याकरणाचे महत्त्व जाणणे आवश्यक आहे. इंग्लिश भाषेचे विविध पैलू समजून घ्यायचे असल्यास आपल्याला English Grammar मदत करते. English Grammar अधिक चांगले करण्यासाठी प्रत्येकाला याचा अभ्यास असणे आवश्यक आहे.

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 2: Tenses and Types of Tenses, Voice_40.1
Adda247 Marathi App

जसे इंग्लिश ग्रामर (English Grammar) आपण आज पाहत आहे. तसेच आगामी येणाऱ्या सर्व स्पर्धा परीक्षांसाठी Adda 247 मराठी ने मराठी व्याकरणावर भाग 1, भाग 2, भाग 3 असे तीन भागात लेख लिहिले आहे. ते जरूर वाचावे जेणे करून परीक्षेत तुम्हाला मदत होईल.

Grammar: The rules of a language, for example for forming words or joining words together in sentences.

English Grammar for Competitive Exams Part 1

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Tense and Types of Tenses

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Tense and Types of Tenses (काळ व काळाचे प्रकार): कुठल्याही स्पर्धा परीक्षेत सर्वात जास्त विचारल्या जाणारा इंग्लिश ग्रामर मधील घटक म्हणजे काळ व काळाचे प्रकार यावर परीक्षेत हमखास प्रश्न येतोच. खाली काळ म्हणजे काय व काळाचे प्रकार दिलेले आहे.

Tense is the form of a verb that shows when something happened, is happening or is going to happen. (काळ हे क्रियापदाचे असे स्वरूप आहे जे काही घडले, घडत आहे किंवा घडणार आहे हे दर्शवते.)

Types of Tenses with Structural Formula

तक्त्यात S- Subject, O- Object, V1- क्रियापदाचे पहिले रूप, V2- क्रियापदाचे दुसरे रूप, V3- क्रियापदाचे तिसरे रूप, Ving म्हणजे V+ing (eat+ing=eating) असे घ्यावे.

Tenses Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Present S+V1+O S+ am/is/are+ Ving+ O S+ have/has + V3+ O S+ have/has + been+ Ving+ O
Past S+V2+O S+ was/were + Ving+ O S+ had + V3+ O S+ had + been+ Ving+ O
Future S+ shall/will + V1+O S+ shall/will + be+ Ving +O S+ shall/will + have+ V3 + O S+ shall/will + have+ been + Ving + O

खालील तक्त्यात Signal words, Use, Form, Affirmative, Negative, Interrogative वाक्य दिलेले आहेत.

Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Simple Present Everyday
Sometimes
Always
Often
Usually
Seldom
Never
First …. then
Something that happens
Repeatedly how often
Follow another
things  in general with the
Follow verbs (to love, to )
Hate, to think etc.
Infinitive
he/she/it + -s
I work.
He works.
I go.
He goes.
I don’t work.
He doesn’t work.
I don’t go.
He doesn’t go.
Do I work?
Does he work?
Do I go?
Does he go?
Present Progressive now
at the moment
Look!
Listen!
Something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it
Future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged  to do it (a fixed plan, date)
To be (am /are/ is) + Infinitive + ing . I’m working.
He’s working.
I’m going.
He’s going.
I’m not working.
He isn’t working.
I’m not going.
He isn’t going.
Am I working?
Is he working?
Am I going?
Is he going?
Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Simple Past
 
Last…
… ago in 1990
The action took place in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present) Regular :
Infinitive + – ed
Irregular:
2. Spalte
I worked.
He worked. I went.
I didn’t work.
He didn’t work.
I didn’t go.
Did I work?
Did he work ?
Did I go?
Yesterday He went. He didn’t go. Did he go?
Past Progressive While An action happened in the middle of another action.
Someone was doing something at a certain time (in the past) – you don’t know whether it was finished or not
Was / were + infinitive + – ing I was working.
He was working.
I was working.
He was going.
I wasn’t working.
He wasn’t working.
I wasn’t going.
He wasn’t going.
Was I working?
Was he working?
Was I going?
Was he going?
Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Simple Present Perfect Just yet
Never
ever
Already so far,
up to now,
For
recently
You say that, has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present
The action started in the past and continues up to the present.
Have / has + past participle*
(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of the table of irregular verbs)
I have worked.
He has worked.
I have gone.
He has gone.
I haven’t worked.
He hasn’t worked.
I haven’t gone.
He hasn’t gone.
Have I worked?
Has he worked?
Have I gone?
Has he gone?
Present Perfect
Progressive
All-day
The whole day
How long
Since
For
The action began in the past and has just stopped
How long the action has been happening
Emphasis: length of time of an action
Have / has + been + infinitive + -ing. I have been working.
He has been working.
I have been going.
He has been working.
I haven’t been working.
He hasn’t been working.
I haven’t been going.
He hasn’t been going.
Have I been working?
Has he been working?
Have I been going?
Has he been going?

Marathi Grammar For Competitive Exam Part 1

Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Simple past perfect Already
just
never
Mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which has already happened is put into past perfect, the other action into simple past
The past of the present perfect
Had + past participle*
*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of the table of the irregular verb)
I had worked.
He had worked.
I had gone.
He had gone.
I hadn’t worked.
He hadn’t worked.
I hadn’t gone.
He hadn’t gone.
Had I worked?
Had he worked?
Had I gone?
Had he gone?
Past Perfect Progressive How
long
since
for
How long something had been happening before something else happened Had + been + Infinitive + ing I had been working.
He had been working.
I had been going.
He had been going.
I hadn’t been working.
H hadn’t been working.
I hadn’t been going.
He hadn’t been going.
Had I been working?
Had he been working?
Had I been going?
Had he been going?
Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Will – future Predictions about the future (you think that sth will happen)
You decided to do sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you haven’t made the main clause in type
I of the if clauses
Will + infinitive I’ll work.
He’ll work.
I’ll go.
He’ll go.
I won’t work.
He won’t work.
I won’t go.
He won’t go.
Will I work?
Will he work?
Will I go?
Will he go?
Going to – future When you have already decided to do. In the future
What do you think will happen
Be (am / are / is) +  going to +  Infinitive I’m going to work.
He’s going to work.
I’m going to go.
He’s going to go.
I’m not going to work.
He’s not going to work.
I’m not going to go.
He’s not going to go.
Am I going to work?
Is he going to work?
Am I going to go?
Am I going to go?
Is he going to go?
Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Future progressive An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This action has begun before a certain time.
Something happens because it normally happens.
Will  + be + infinitive +  ing. I’ll be working.
He’ll be working.
I’ll be going.
He’ll be going.
I won’t be working.
He won’t be working.
I won’t be going.
He won’t be going.
Will I be working?
Will he be working?
Will I be going?
Will be going?
Future perfect simple Sth will already have happened before a certain time in the future Will + have + past participle*
*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of the table of irregular verbs)
I’ll have worked.
He’ll have worked.
I’ll have gone.
He’ll have gone.
I won’t have worked.
He won’t have worked.
I won’t have gone.
He won’t have gone.
Will I have worked?
Will he have worked?
Will I have gone?
Will he have gone?
Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Future perfect progressive Sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future
Emphasis: length of time of an action
Will + have + been + infinitive + ing I’ll have been working.
He’ll have been working.
I’ll have been going.
He’ll have been going
I won’t have been working.
He won’t have been working.
I won’t have been going.
He won’t have been going.
Will I have been working?
Will he have been working?
Will I have been working?
Will he have been working?
Condition Simple Sth. that might happen
Main clause in type II of the If clause.
Would + infinitive I would work.
He would work.
I would go.
He would go.
I wouldn’t work.
He wouldn’t work.
I wouldn’t go.
He wouldn’t go.
Would I work?
Would he work?
Would I work?
Would he work?
Conditional progressive Sth. that might happen
Emphasis: length of time of an action
Would  + be +  infinitive + ing. I would be working.
He would be working.
I would be going.
He would be going.
I wouldn’t be working.
He wouldn’t be working.
I wouldn’t be going.
He wouldn’t be going
Would I be working?
Would he be working?
Would I be going?
Would he be going?
Tense Signal words Use Form Example affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Conditional Perfect Sth that might have happened in the past
(it’s too late now)
Main clause in type III of the if-clauses.
Would +  have +  past participle*
*(infinitive + -ed ) or  (3rd column of the table of irregular verbs)
I would have worked.
He would have worked.
I would have gone.
He would have gone.
I wouldn’t have worked.
He wouldn’t have worked.
I wouldn’t have gone.
He wouldn’t have gone
Would I have worked?
Would he have worked?
Would I have gone?
Would he have gone?
Conditional Perfect Progressive Sth. that might have happened in the past
(It’s too late now.)
Emphasis: length of time of an action
Would +  have + been + infinitive + ing I would have been working.
He would have been going.
I would have been going.
He would have been going.
I wouldn’t have been working.
He wouldn’t have been going.
I wouldn’t have been going.
He wouldn’t have been going.
Would I have been working?

Would he have been working?

Would I have been going?

Would he have been going?

Marathi Grammar For Competitive Exam Part 2

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Voice 

English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Voice (प्रयोग): कर्च्यामाच्या संबंधात एखाद्या विषयाची क्रिया दोन प्रकारे व्यक्त होते. एखाद्या विषयाची क्रिया व्यक्त करण्याचे हे दोन मार्ग Voice म्हणून ओळखले जातात.

Voice, in grammar, is a form of a verb indicating the relation between the participants in a narrated event (subject, object) and the event itself.

A transitive verb has two forms or two voices. These are the Active and Passive.

Active Voice (कर्तरी प्रयोग): या वाक्यात कर्ता (Subject) महत्वाचा असून वाक्याची सुरवात कर्त्याने होते.  examples. He played cricket.

Passive Voice (कर्मणी प्रयोग): या वाक्यात कर्म (Object) महत्वाचा असून वाक्याची सुरवात कर्माने होते.

Changing the voice from Active to Passive: Active Voice चे Passive Voice करतांना काही नियम आहे ते खालीलप्रमाणे

Rule No.1:
The structure of the sentence will be reversed in passive voice. The places of the subject and the object will interchange. The subject will shift to the place of the object and the object will take the place of the subject in Passive Voice.

Example:
Active Voice: he buys a camera.
Passive Voice: A camera is bought by him.

Rule No.2:
Only past participle form or 3rd form of the verb (.e.g. eaten etc.) will always be used as the main verb in Passive voices for all tenses. No other form of the verb will be used as the main verb.

Rule No.3:
The word “by” will be used before the subject in the passive voice.

Example:
Active Voice: She drinks water.
Passive Voice: Water is drunk by her.

Rule No.4:
Other words such as “with “or “to” may also be used instead of the word “by “depending upon the subject of the sentence. These words are used in a very few cases.

Example:
Active Voice: I know him.
Passive Voice: He is known to me.

Active Voice: Water fills a tub.
Passive Voice: A tub is filled with water.

Rule No.5:
The auxiliary verb will be changed in Passive Voice depending upon the tense of the sentence in its Active Voice.

Rule No.6:
Subject may not always mention in Passive Voice. Passive voice for some sentences can also be written without having a subject if it gives a clear idea about the subject.

Marathi Grammar For Competitive Exam Part 3

Example:
Passive Voice: Women are not treated as equals.
Passive Voice: Sugar is sold in kilograms.

Active Voice चे Passive Voice करतांना काळामध्ये कसा बदल होतो ते खाली तक्त्यात दिले आहे. उदाहरणासाठी Keep या क्रियापद कसे बदलेल ते सांगितले आहे.

Tense Active Passive
Simple Present Keep Is Kept
Present Continuous Is Keeping Is Being Kept
Simple Past Kept Was Kept
Past Continuous Was Keeping Was being Kept
Present Perfect Have Kept Have Been Kept
Past perfect Had Kept Had Been Kept
Simple Future Will Keep Will Be Kept
Conditional Present Would Keep Would-Be Kept
Conditional Past Would Have Kept Would Have Been Kept
Present Infinitive To Keep To Be Kept
Perfect Infinitive To Have Kept To Have Been Kept
Present Participle Keeping Being Kept
Perfect Participle Having Kept Having Been Kept

Study Material for All MPSC Exams |  MPSC च्या सर्व परीक्षांसाठी अभ्यास साहित्य

Study Material for All MPSC Exams: तुमच्या अभ्यासाच्या तयारीला गती देण्यासाठी Adda247 मराठी सर्व विषयातील महत्वाचे टॉपिक कव्हर करणार आहे. त्याच्या सर्व लिंक तुम्ही खालील तक्त्यात पाहू शकता आणि दररोज यात भर पडणार आहे. त्यामुळे तुम्ही Adda 247 मराठी च्या अधिकृत वेबसाईट ला भेट द्या. यामुळे तुम्हाला MPSC राज्यसेवा पुर्व परीक्षा 2022 व तसेच आगामी MPSC च्या सर्व स्पर्धा परीक्षेत जास्त गुण मिळवण्यास मदत होईल.

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FAQs English Grammar for Competitive Exams

Q1. What is meant by Grammar?

Ans. The rules of a language, for example for forming words or joining words together in sentences.

Q2. What is meant by Tenses?

Ans. Tense is the form of a verb that shows when something happened, is happening, or is going to happen

Q3. What is meant by Voice?

Ans. Voice, in grammar, form of a verb indicating the relation between the participants in a narrated event (subject, object) and the event itself.

Q4. Where can I find such an important article?

Ans. On the official website of Adda 247 Marathi, you will find notifications of all competitive examinations, syllabus, previous year’s question papers, and study materials.

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