English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 3: महाराष्ट्रातील तसेच राज्यातील बहुतेक स्पर्धा परीक्षेचा महत्वाचा विषय म्हणजे इंग्लिश. इंग्लिश विषयात जास्तकरून इंग्लिश ग्रामर वर प्रश्न विचारले जातात. नेहमीच्या सरावाने इंग्लिश विषयात चांगले गुण मिळू शकतात. महाराष्ट्रातील MPSC राज्यसेवा परीक्षा, MPSC गट ब व गट क च्या परीक्षा, तसेच MPSC घेत असलेल्या इतर स्पर्धा परीक्षामध्ये, त्याचप्रमाणे आरोग्य विभाग भरती, जिल्हा परिषद भरती, म्हाडा भरती, MAHATET व इतर स्पर्धा परीक्षांमध्ये इंग्लिश ग्रामरला विशेष महत्त्व आहे. इंग्लिश ग्रामर चे रोज वाचन फायदेशीर ठरते. आपण English Grammar for Competitive Exams ही लेखमालिका (Article Series) आगामी पेपरच्या दृष्टीने तयार केली. ज्यामुळे तुम्हाला पेपरमध्ये नक्की फायदा होईल. आज आपण या लेखात Direct-Indirect Speech, Article, Types of Sentence व इंग्लिश मधील समानार्थी व विरुद्दर्थी शब्द (Synonyms and Antonyms) पाहणार आहोत.
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 3 | स्पर्धा परीक्षांसाठी इंग्लिश ग्रामर: भाग 3
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Part 3: इंग्लिश ही संपूर्ण जगात बोलल्या जाणारी भाषा आहे. जी विविध देशातील व देशान्तर्गत लोकांना संपर्क साधण्यास आणि संभाषण सुरू ठेवण्यास मदत करते. लिखित इंग्रजीच्या मुख्य पैलूंपैकी एक म्हणजे English Grammar. इंग्लिश भाषेचे विविध पैलू समजून घ्यायचे असल्यास आपल्याला English Grammar मदत करते.
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: भाग 1 मध्ये आपण Part of Speech च्या आठ जाती (Parts) व त्याचे उपप्रकार व भाग 2 मध्ये काळ व त्यांचे प्रकार (Tenses and Types of Tenses), आणि प्रयोग (Voice) व Active Voice चे Passive Voice रुपांतर कसे करावे हे पहिले. आजच्या लेखात Direct-Indirect Speech, Articles, Types of Sentence व इंग्लिश मधील समानार्थी व विरुद्दर्थी शब्द (Synonyms and Antonyms) पाहणार आहोत.
जसे इंग्लिश ग्रामर आपण आज पाहत आहे. तसेच आगामी येणाऱ्या सर्व स्पर्धा परीक्षांसाठी Adda 247 मराठी ने मराठी व्याकरणावर भाग 1, भाग 2, भाग 3 असे तीन भागात लेख लिहिले आहे. ते जरूर वाचावे जेणे करून परीक्षेत तुम्हाला मदत होईल.
Grammar: The rules of a language, for example for forming words or joining words together in sentences.
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Direct – Indirect Speech
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Direct – Indirect Speech: आपण एखाद्या व्यक्तीचे बोलणे ऐकतो तेव्हा ते प्रत्यक्ष कथन (Direct speech) असते, हेच बोलणे ज्यावेळी ऐकणारी व्यक्ती काही काळाने दुसऱ्याला सांगते त्यावेळी त्या मूळ बोलण्यात जे योग्य ते बद्दल केले जातात त्याला अप्रत्यक्ष कथन (Indirect Speech) असे म्हणतात.
When we express someone’s words in our own words, it is called “Indirect Speech” and when we express someone’s words as it is, it is called “Direct Speech“.
Example: They said, “We will be partying tonight.” (Direct Speech)
They said that they would be partying that night. (Indirect Speech)
Direct Speech चे Indirect Speech मध्ये रुपांतर करतांनाचे नियम खालीलप्रमाणे आहेत.
- Reporting verb (बोलणाऱ्याची क्रिया दर्शविणारा शब्द) is changed according to the form and sense of the sentence.
- Inverted commas are removed in the indirect speech.
- Connective word is used at the beginning of the reported speech.
- A verb of the reported speech (बोलणाऱ्याच्या तोंडचे शब्द) is changed according to the form and sense of the sentence.
- Persons & Helping Verbs of the reported speech are changed.
Rules of change of Pronouns
Pronouns (सर्वनामे) are changed as per the SON rule where SON refers to:
- S stands for Subject
- O stands for Object
- N stands for No change.
- Here, First-person changes to the subject of Reporting Verb
- Second person changes to Object of Reporting Verb
- There is no change if it is a Third person.
Rule No 1.
1st Person of the pronoun of Reported speech is changed according to the Subject of Reporting verb of the sentence.
Direct: He says, “I am in ninth class.”
Indirect: He says that she is in ninth class.
Rule No 2.
2nd Person of the pronoun of Reported speech is changed according to Object of Reporting verb in the sentence.
Direct: He says to me, “you have done your work”
Indirect: He tells me that I have done my work.
Rule No 3.
3rd Person of Pronoun of Reported speech is not changed.
Direct: She says, “He does not work hard”
Indirect: She says that he does not work hard.
Rules of change of verb or Tense
When the reporting verb is given in Present or Future tense then there will be no change in the verb or tense of the Reported speech in the sentence.
Direct: The teacher says, “Ram performs on the stage”
Indirect: The teacher says that Ram performs on the stage.
Direct: The teacher is saying, “Ram performs on the stage”
Indirect: The teacher is saying that Ram performs on the stage.
When the reporting verb is given in Past tense then the tense of the verb of Reported Speech will change into corresponding Past tense.
Direct: The teacher said, “I am suffering from cancer.”
Indirect: The teacher said that she was suffering from cancer.
Changes from Past form in an indirect speech from the verb in Reported speech.
- Simple present changes to Simple Past
- Present Continuous changes to Past Continuous
- Present Perfect changes to Past Perfect
- Present Perfect Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous
- Simple Past changes to Past Perfect
- Past Continuous changes to Past Perfect Continuous
- In Future Tense will/Shall changes to would
- Can changes to Could
- May changes to Might
Exceptional cases of Rule 2
When the Reporting speech has Universal Truth or Habitual fact then there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: Our teacher said, “The Mars is round”
Indirect: Our teacher said that the mars is round.( Universal Truth)
When the reporting speech has Past Historical Fact then there is no change in the Tense.
When the Reporting speech has two actions to be happening at a time when there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: He said “My sister was making lunch when I was studying”
Indirect: He said that his sister was making lunch when she was studying.
When Reporting speech has some Imagined Condition then there is no change in the Tense.
Direct: He said, “If I were rich, I would help him.”
Indirect: He said that if he were rich he would help him.
Some other changes that take place when we change Direct Speech to Indirect Speech.
|Today||Changes to||That day|
|To-night||Changes to||That night|
|Yesterday||Changes to||The previous day|
|Last night||Changes to||The previous night|
|Last week||Changes to||The previous week|
|Tomorrow||Changes to||The next day|
|Next Week||Changes to||The following week|
Rules for Change in Narration of different types of sentences
- When there is no object in the subject after Reporting verb there it should not be changed.
- When there is some object in a sentence after Reporting verb then say is changed to tell, says to tells and said to told.
- As per the context said to can be replaced by replied, informed, stated, added, remarked, asserted, assured, pleaded, reminded, reported or complained etc.
- We put conjunction that in place of “ ”.
- We generally Change the pronouns of the Reported speech as enlisted earlier.
Direct: He said to me, “I shall sleep now”
Indirect: He told me that he would play then.
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Articles
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Articles (उपपदे): इंग्लिश भाषेत एकूण तीन उपपदे आहेत, ती पुढीलप्रमाणे ‘A’, ‘An’ आणि ‘The’ या एकूण तीन उपपदांचे दोन प्रकार पडतात.
- ‘A’, ‘An’ ही अनिश्चितता वाचक उपपदे व
- The’ हे निश्चितता वाचक उपपद
A’ या उपपदाचा उपयोग पुढील प्रमाणे केला जातो.
- संख्यावाचक शब्दापूर्वी ‘a’ येते. e.g. a thousand, a hundred
- दिलेल्या वाक्यात जर much असेल तर त्यानंतर ‘a’ हे उपपद वापरले जाते. eg. a lot of, a number of, a little
- एकवचनी नामाची सुरुवात व्यंजनाने असेल तर a हे उपपद येते eg. a table, a book, a tree etc.
An’ या उपपदाचा उपयोग :
- सामान्य नामापूर्वी जर पहिला वर्ण स्वर असेल तर त्या सामान्य नामापूर्वी ‘an’ उपपद वापरतात. e.g. an umbrella, an orange etc.
- सामान्यनामाच्या सुरुवातीच्या व्यंजनाचा उच्चार स्वराप्रमाणे होत असेल तर ‘an’ उपपद वापरतात. e.g. an hour, an honest etc.
निश्चिततावाचक उपपद ‘The’:
- जगात एखादी गोष्ट एकच असेल तर त्या एकमेव गोष्टीच्या अगोदर ‘the’ हे उपपद वापरतात. e.g. the earth, the sun, the moon, the neptune, the Mars etc.
- सर्व दिशांच्या नावा अगोदर ‘the’ वापरतात. e.g. – the east, the west, the south, the north.
- धर्मग्रंथाच्या नावा अगोदर the वापरतात eg. The Quran, The Bible.
- सामान्य नामापूर्वी superlative degree हे विशेषण असल्यास ‘the’ हे उपपद वापरतात. eg. He is the cleverest boy.
- नद्या, समुद्र, महासागर यांच्या नामोल्लेखापूर्वी ‘the’ वापरतात. eg. – the Krishna, the Arabian sea, the Pacific Ocean etc.
- क्रमवाचक संख्या विशेषण पूर्वी ‘the’ वापरतात. eg. the third, the first, the fourth.
- संगीत साहित्याच्या नामोल्लेखापूर्वी ‘the’ वापरतात eg. the sitar, the flute, etc.
- विशेषनामाचा एखाद्या सामान्य नामाप्रमाणे उपयोग करतात तेव्हा ‘the’ हे उपपद वापरतात. eg. Kalidas has the Shakespeare of India.
- क्रियापदापूर्वी, समुच्चय वाचक नामापूर्वी, भाववाचक नामापूर्वी, दिनदर्शिकेपूर्वी eg. – Gopal, Animals, Marathi, Water, Solapur, January
- अनेकवचनी नामापूर्वी उपपद वापरत नाहीत. eg. Shakespeare, Wisdom, Oil, etc.
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Types of Sentences
[i] Assertive Sentence or Statement
- If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense in the reported speech is not changed.
- Direct: Nabil says, “I am fine.”
- Indirect: Nabil says that he is fine.
- Direct: The man says, “I shall do it.”
- Indirect: The man says that he will do it.
- Direct: He says, “I went there yesterday.”
- Indirect: He says that he went there yesterday.
- Direct: He will say, “I am ready to go.”
- Indirect: He says that he is ready to go.
- If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb in the reported speech is changed into the corresponding past form.
- Nadin said, “I am fine.’
- Nadin said that he was fine.
- He said, “I want to go.”
- He said that he wanted to go.
- He said, “I am reading a book.”
- He said that he was reading a book.
- He said, “I have learnt my lesson.”
- He said that he had learnt his lesson.
- He said, “I have been learning English.”
- He said that he had been teaming English.
- He said, “I had reached the school before the bell rang”
- He said that he had reached the school before the bell rang.
- He said, “I can do the work.
- He said that he could do the work.
- He said, “I shall do it.”
- He said that he would do it.
- He said, “I shall have done it.”
- He said that he would have done it.
- If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb of the reported speech is in the past indefinite tense, it (the verb in the reported speech) is changed into the past perfect tense.
- Direct: Urmi said, “I went to school.
- Indirect: Urmi said that she had gone to school.
- Direct: He said, “I wrote the book.”
- Indirect: He said that he had written the book.
- Direct: Kabir said to me, “I was sick.”
- Indirect: Kabir told me (said to me) that he had been sick.
- If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb in the reported speech is in the past continuous, it (the verb in the reported speech) is changed into the past perfect continuous tense.
- Direct: He said, “I was reading a book.”
- Indirect: He said that he had been reading a book.
- Direct: Shimu said to me, “I was making research to solve the problem.”
- Indirect: Shimu told me that she had been making research to solve the problem.
(Note: The use of the conjunction between the reporting speech and the reported speech is not a must in the indirect speech.)
- If the Direct Speech describes a universal truth, constant fact, habitual fact, geographical fact and quotations, the verb in the reported speech remains unchanged:
- Direct: The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
- Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
- Direct: He said, “My father reads the Holy Quran every morning.”
- Indirect: He said that his father reads the Holy Quran every morning.
- Direct: Keats said, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.”
- Indirect: Keats I said that a thing of beauty is a joy forever.
- The First Person of the direct speech is changed into the person the man spoken to and the third person does not have any change:
- Direct: Rahman said to Mamun, “Your father will go to my office”
- Indirect: Rahman told Mamun that his father would go to his office.
- Direct: Salim says to you, “You did not help me.”
- Indirect: Salim tells you that you did not help him.
- Direct: They said to us, “He will meet you.”
- Indirect: They told us that he would meet us.
(Note: If the Reporting Verb has an object, it is not good English to write, “Said to him”, It is better to write told us/him etc.)
- If the Reported speech has two or more verbs occurring at the same time, the past tense of the verbs is not changed:
- Direct: The teacher said, “Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept.”
- Indirect: The teacher said that Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept.
- Indirect: He said, “The children sang, danced and played.”
- Direct: He said that the children sang, danced and played.
- Words that express nearness are often changed into the words expressing remoteness:
- Here- there
- This -that
- Ago -before
- These -those
- Hence -thence
- Come -go
- Hither -thither
- Thus -so, in that way
- Today- that day, the same day
- Tomorrow- The next day, the following day
- Yesterday -the previous day, the day before
- Last night -the previous night, the night before
[ii] Interrogative Sentence:
Structure of indirect speech
(a) Reporting verb is changed into ask or enquire of.
(b) If or whether is used as a linking word.
(c) The auxiliary verb in the reported speech is used after the subject.
(d) If the sentence begins with whom, who, which, what, how, when, where, why etc., these are not changed and if or whether is not used.
(Note: The indirect speech becomes a statement and no question mark is used.
- Nadim said to Nadia, “Are you reading now?”
- Nadim asked Nadia (or enquired of) if she was reading then.
- The man said to Shaila, “What is your name?”
- The man asked Shaila what her name was.
[iii] Imperative Sentence
Structure of indirect speech
- Reporting verb is changed into tell, command or order, request – or beg or entreat or ask, forbid, according to the sense of the speech
- Reporting verb and Reported speech are joined by Infinitive. – He said to me, “Do it now”? He told me to do it then.
The captain said, “Soldiers, march on”. The captain commanded the soldiers to march on.
[iv] Optative Sentence
The structure of indirect speech of Optative sentences:
- The Reporting verb is changed into a wish or pray.
- The Optative form is changed into a statement ‘That’ is used as a linking word.
- He said to me, “May you be happy”.
- He wished that I might be happy.
- Mr. Khan said, “May Allah save me”.
- Mr. Khan prayed that Allah might save him.
[v] Exclamatory Sentence:
- The reporting verb is changed into exclaim, cry, shout etc. according to the sense.
- New words and phrases like. with joy/in joy, with sorrow/ in sorrow, in wonder etc. are used to express the meaning of exclamation. If the sense of exclamation is not clear, such phrases are not used.
- Direct: The man said, “Alas! I am undone”.
- Indirect: The man cried out in sorrow that he was undone.
- Direct: He said, “What a fool I am“!
- Indirect: He cried out with sorrow that he was a great fool.
- [Note: ‘great’ is used before a noun]
- Direct: He said, “What a long journey”!
- Indirect: He exclaimed that it was a very long journey.
- Direct: He said, “Who knew that it would happen”!
- Indirect: He said that nobody knew -that it would happen.
- Direct: He said, “By God! I have never done it”.
- Indirect: He swore by God that he had never done it.
- Direct: He said, “Had I the wings of a bird!”
- Indirect: He wished he had the wings of a bird.
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Synonyms and Antonyms
English Grammar for Competitive Exams: Synonyms and Antonyms (समानार्थी व विरुद्धार्थी शब्द): महाराष्ट्रातील बहुतेक स्पर्धा परीक्षेमध्ये इंग्लिश ग्रामर (English Grammar) यात Synonyms and Antonyms (समानार्थी व विरुद्धार्थी शब्द) शब्दांवर नेहमी प्रश्न विचारल्या जातात.
- Synonyms: One of two or more words or expressions of the same language that have the same or nearly the same meaning in some or all senses
- Antonyms: A word of opposite meaning is called Antonyms.
Study material for All Computative Exam | सर्व स्पर्धा परीक्षेसाठी अभ्यास साहित्य
Study material for All Computative Exam: आरोग्य भरती 2021, जिल्हा परिषद भरती 2021, म्हाडा भरती 2021, MPSC द्वारे घेतल्या जाणाऱ्या सर्व परीक्षा व इतर स्पर्धा परीक्षेच्या तयारीसाठी Adda 247 मराठी असेच आवश्यक लेख आणत असतो. त्यामुळे तुम्ही Adda 247 मराठी च्या अधिकृत वेबसाईट ला भेट द्या. यामुळे तुम्हाला येवू घातलेल्या आरोग्य व जिल्हा परिषद भरती 2021 आणि इतर सर्व स्पर्धा परीक्षा मध्ये जास्त गुण मिळवण्यास मदत होईल.
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FAQs English Grammar for Competitive Exams
Q1. What is meant by Grammar?
Ans. The rules of a language, for example for forming words or joining words together in sentences.
Q2. What is meant by Direct Speech?
Ans. When we express someone’s words as it is, it is called Direct Speech.
Q3. What is meant by Indirect Speech?
Ans. When we express someone’s words in our own words, it is called Indirect Speech
Q4. How many articles are in the English language?
Ans. There are 3 articles in the English language. They are a, an, the.
Q5. Where can I find such an important article?
Ans. On the official website of Adda 247 Marathi, you will find notifications of all competitive examinations, syllabus, previous year’s question papers, and study materials.
केवळ सरावच परीक्षेत चांगले गुण मिळण्यास मदत करू शकतो