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Addapedia Editorial Analysis-19-06-24 | अड्डापिडीया संपादकीय विश्लेषण-19-06-24

G7 Summit of 2024

 (New dynamics – The Hindu, 19/06/24)

50th group of G7 Summit hosted by Italy in Apulia

Addapedia Editorial Analysis-19-06-24 | अड्डापिडीया संपादकीय विश्लेषण-19-06-24_3.1

What is G7 and its background?

  • The G7, or Group of Seven, is an informal group of leading industrialized democracies. It consists of: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States
  • Origins: The oil crisis triggered by the OPEC oil embargo in 1973 and the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system created a need for collaboration among major economies. Initially, it began as ad-hoc gatherings of finance ministers.
  • In 1975, the first official G7 summit was held in France, focusing on finding solutions to the pressing economic challenges.
  • The G7’s agenda has broadened over time. While economic issues remain central, the group now tackles a wider range of global concerns, including Security, Climate Change, Trade & Human Rights.

What are some of the criticisms of G7?

  • Limited Representation: Critics argue that the G7, representing a select group of nations, lacks inclusivity and doesn’t reflect the changing global power dynamics. Emerging economies like India and China are not part of the core group
  • Effectiveness: Some question the G7’s ability to translate discussions into concrete action. Reaching consensus among diverse members can be challenging, and follow-through can be limited.
  • Relevance: With the rise of other international forums like the G20 (which includes major emerging economies), some debate the G7’s continued relevance in the 21st century

What were the key outcomes of 2024 G7 summit held in Italy?

  • Launched G7 Apulia Food Systems Initiative (AFSI) – aims is to intensify efforts to overcome structural barriers to food security & nutrition.
  • G7 reached consensus to launch G7 Extraordinary Revenue Acceleration (ERA) Loans for Ukraine in order to make approximately US$50 billion in additional funding available to Ukraine by the end of the year
  • Mobilize up to USD 600 billion through the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) by 2027.
    • PGII is joint initiative of G7, launched in 2022 G7 summit, to help fund infrastructure projects in developing countries through public & private investments.
  • Artificial intelligence – announced to develop a brand to support the implementation of the International Code of Conduct for Organizations Developing Advanced AI Systems.

What were some of the criticisms of 2024 summit?

  • The joint statement listed global problems but lacked concrete plans to address them.
  • Continued support pledged, but no clear strategy for ending the war.
  • Gaza ceasefire appeal ignored by Israel.
  • G7 criticized China’s Indo-Pacific actions and trade practices, but commitment to reducing trade ties unclear.
  • There was repeated talks on infrastructure projects raises but the actual implementation has been slow.

Can you answer the following question?

Given the lack of concrete action plans outlined in the recent G7 communiqué, how effective is the G7 in tackling complex global challenges?

Mercy Petition

(The Hindu,19/06/24)

Mercy petition of Pakistani terrorist convicted in Red Fort case has been rejected by the President of India.

  • This is the second mercy plea rejected by President Murmu after assuming office on July 25, 2022. In April 2023, she had rejected the mercy plea of Vasant Sampat Dupare, convicted of raping and killing a four-year-old in Nagpu

What is a Mercy Petition?

  • A mercy petition is a formal request made by a person convicted of a crime, usually a serious one such as capital punishment, seeking clemency, pardon, or commutation of their sentence.
  • It is a plea for leniency and mercy addressed to the highest authority in the country, usually the President or the Governor.
    • In India, it is generally used in the case of death sentences.
  • It is the last resort available to the convict & is exercised when all legal remedies exhaust.
    • If a convict is awarded a death sentence, he has 3 options – a review petition, a curative petition before the Supreme Court & finally, a mercy petition before the President.

What is the need of Mercy Petition?

  • Right to Life: Mercy petitions offer a final chance to avoid capital punishment, upholding the right to life enshrined in the Indian Constitution (Article 21).
  • Review of Sentence: Petitions allow for a re-examination of the case, potentially leading to a lighter sentence if new evidence or mitigating circumstances come to light.
  • Humanitarian Considerations: Mercy petitions can be used to seek clemency in cases where the death penalty might be deemed excessive or unjust due to factors like age, mental health, or remorse.

What are the Constitutional and Legal Provisions for Death Sentence?

  • Article 72: The President of India has the power to grant pardons under Article 72 of the Constitution. This includes the ability to commute death sentences to life imprisonment.
  • Article 161: Similarly, Governors of states can grant pardons for offenses under state law using Article 161.
  • No Individual Discretion: The President or Governor is bound by advice of the Council of Ministers (he can only ask them to reconsider it but it the same recommendation is sent again, he is bound to accept the advice).
  • There is no time limit prescribed for the President to exercise this power.
  • There is no binding effect on the President & Governor to accept all the mercy petitions.
  • President/Governor acts under a constitutional power, the nature of which is entirely different from the judicial power and cannot be regarded as an extension of it
  • The Court can review the manner of exercise of the power but not the merits of the decision.
  • There is no right for the convict to insist on an oral hearing before the President.

What is the procedure of mercy petition?

  • First, a written petition is filed before the President/Governor either by the convict or his/her relative on his/her behalf.
  • Second, the Petition will be forwarded to the Ministry of Home Affairs for comments & recommendations.
  • Third, Home Ministry examines the petition and seeks advice from the relevant state government, prison authorities, and other bodies. A comprehensive report is prepared and submitted to the President.
  • Fourth, as per the advice of the Council of Ministers (CoM), the President can either accept or reject the mercy plea (no personal discretion with the President)

What is the Supreme Court Jurisprudence on Mercy Petitions?

  • R. Veerappan vs. Union of India (2000): The court emphasized the need for a fair and reasonable process while considering mercy petitions.
  • Shatrughan Chauhan vs. Union of India (2014): The Supreme Court ruled that undue delay in deciding mercy petitions is a valid ground for commutation of the death sentence to life imprisonment. It also laid down guidelines for the disposal of mercy petitions and held that the convict should be informed promptly about the rejection of their petition.
  • Yakub Abdul Razak Memon vs. State of Maharashtra (2015): In this case, the Supreme Court emphasized the need for the due process to be followed meticulously and the President and Governors to give due consideration to the mercy petitions.
  • Marufi vs. Union Territory of Pondicherry (2018): The court stressed the importance of considering mental health issues during the mercy petition process.
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