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Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus 2023, Download PDF

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus: Kerala Public Service Commission has published Assistant Scientist Syllabus. If you have applied for the post of Assistant Scientist and would like to know the detailed syllabus, then your search ends right here. In this article, we will provide the detailed syllabus of the upcoming Assistant Scientist Exam 2023. In order to crack the exam, one needs to have a clear understanding of the syllabus, therefore read through Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus to broaden your perspective. You can also download Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus in PDF format.

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus 2023

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus 2023: പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കുള്ള തയ്യാറെടുപ്പുകൾ ആരംഭിക്കാൻ  സമയമായി. പരീക്ഷയിൽ വിജയിക്കുന്നതിന്, സിലബസിനെക്കുറിച്ച് വ്യക്തമായ ധാരണ ഉണ്ടായിരിക്കണം, അതിനാൽ കേരള PSC അസിസ്റ്റന്റ് സൈൻറ്റിസ്റ്റ് സിലബസ് 2023 വിശദമായി വായിച്ച് മനസിലാക്കുക. നിങ്ങൾക്ക് Assistant Scientist Syllabus PDF രൂപത്തിൽ ഡൗൺലോഡ് ചെയ്യാവുന്നതാണ്.

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Assistant Scientist Kerala State Pollution Control Board Syllabus: Overview

ചുവടെ നൽകിയിരിക്കുന്ന പട്ടികയിൽ Assistant Scientist Kerala State Pollution Control Board Syllabus സംബന്ധമായ എല്ലാ പ്രധാനപ്പെട്ട വിവരങ്ങളും ലഭിക്കും.

Assistant Scientist Kerala State Pollution Control Board Syllabus
Organization Kerala Public Service Commission
Category Exam Syllabus
Department Kerala State Pollution Control Board
Name of the Post Assistant Scientist
Category No. 582/2022
Last Date to Submit Confirmation 23rd March to 11th April 2023
Mode of Examination ONLINE/ OMR
Medium of Questions English
Total Marks 100
Duration of Examination 1 Hour 30 Minutes
Official Website

Assistant Scientist Pollution Control Board Exam Pattern

Assistant Scientist Pollution Control Board Exam Pattern
Parts Subjects Marks
Part I Microbiology 25 Marks
Part II Biotechnology 25 Marks
Part III Chemistry 25 Marks
Part IV Environmental Science / Life Science 25 Marks

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist  Syllabus PDF Download

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Syllabus PDF ഡൗൺലോഡ് ചെയ്യാൻ, താഴെ നൽകിയിരിക്കുന്ന ലിങ്കിൽ ക്ലിക്ക് ചെയ്യുക.

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Pollution Control Board Syllabus PDF Download

Kerala PSC Assistant Scientist Pollution Control Board Syllabus

Part I: Microbiology (25 Marks)

Module 1: Techniques in Microbiology (5 Marks)

  • Microscopy techniques: light microscopy, electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, and their applications in microbiology.
  • Staining techniques: Gram stain, acid-fast stain, endospore stain, and their principles and applications.
  • Sterilization and disinfection techniques: physical methods (heat, radiation, filtration) and chemical methods (alcohols, aldehydes, halogens, etc.).
  • Spectrophotometry and calorimetry: principles and applications in microbiology.
  • Chromatography techniques: adsorption, partition, ion exchange, gel filtration, HPLC, FPLC, and their applications in microbiology.
  • Electrophoretic techniques for proteins and nucleic acids, PCR. Techniques used for identification of microorganisms – biotyping, serotyping, molecular techniques such as PCR, DNA sequencing, and gene expression analysis.

Module 2: General Microbiology and Microbial Physiology (5 Marks)

  • Comparison of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaebacteria and eubacteria. Bacterial forms and arrangement of cells. Actinomycetes, Mold, and yeast forms. Viral and bacteriophage forms.
  • Ultrastructure of bacteria. Effect of antibiotics on microbial cells. Structure, function, and chemical composition of cell wall and cell membrane. Endospore: Structure, formation, stages of sporulation.
  • Effect of various parameters and Environmental factors on microbial growth. Bacteria classification is based on specific requirements based on temperature, pH, O2, and solute concentration.
  • Nutritional requirements of bacteria. Nutritional types of bacteria. Modes of bacterial nutrition. Transport of nutrients by bacteria. Solid and liquid media, use of agar. Different types of cultural media.
  • Culturing methods-Streak, spread, pour plate methods, stab culture, and lawn culture. Cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Culture preservation strategies. Growth curve and its significance.
  • Viral growth- lytic and lysogenic stage. Viral cultivation methods. Viral and bacteriophage quantitation methods.
  • Bacterial metabolism: energy generation, respiration, and fermentation.
  • Microbial genetics: DNA replication, transcription, translation, plasmids, and genetic recombination.

Module 3: Environmental Microbiology (5 Marks)

  • Soil microbiology: microbial diversity, soil fertility, and factors affecting the microbial population.
  • Aquatic Microbiology: Aquatic environment, distribution of microorganisms in the aquatic environment. Factors influencing their growth and distribution. Water Purification procedures for public water supplies, Concept of indicator organisms, Microbiological examination of water. BOD, COD, and Wastewater treatment steps and methods. Eutrophication and algal bloom. A brief account of water-borne diseases and transmission.
  • Aerobiology – atmospheric layers, organisms in the air, distribution, and sources. Disease forecasting in plants. Indoor and outdoor air. Droplet nuclei, aerosol, infectious dust. Microbiological sampling of air. Airborne transmission of harmful microbes and airborne infections.
  • Biogeochemical cycles: role of microorganisms in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles.
  • Microbe-microbe interactions: mutualism, synergism, commensalism, competition, amensalism, parasitism, and predation.

Module 4: Waste Management and Xenobiotic Metabolism (5 Marks)

  • Solid waste management: sources and types of solid waste, need for management, and different methods of waste management such as landfills, composting, vermicomposting, anaerobic digesters, and production of biogas.
  • Bioreactor design and operation for waste treatment such as anaerobic digesters, aerobic reactors, and membrane bioreactors.
  • Xenobiotic metabolism – Novel pollutants, persistence, and biomagnification. Recalcitrant halocarbons- nitroaromatic compounds, PCB, alkyl benzene sulphonates, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial detoxification and biotransformation of xenobiotic compounds.
  • Bioremediation of polluted environment. Oil spills, heavy Metals, and other xenobiotics. Microbial leaching and corrosion of metals.
  • Microbial biosensors for monitoring pollutants and their metabolism- microbial biosensors, whole-cell biosensors, enzyme-based biosensors, and immuno-sensors.

Module 5: Food Microbiology (5 Marks)

  • Food as a substrate for microorganisms. Types of microorganisms in food. Source of contamination. Factors influencing microbial growth in foods. Physical and chemical properties of milk. Milk is a substrate for microorganisms.
  • Types of microorganisms in Milk- bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Sources of microbial contamination of milk. Microbiological analysis of milk.
  • Food fermentations: Cheese, bread, yogurt, idli, fermented pickles and fermented vegetables, Ice cream, – methods and organisms used. SCP, Probiotics, and prebiotics.
  • General principles underlying spoilage, spoilage of different kinds of foods
  • Principles of food preservation. Physical and chemical methods of preservation. Food Sanitation, good manufacturing practices, HACCP, and personnel hygiene.

Part II: Biotechnology (25 Marks)

Module I- Biophysics and Principle of Instrumentation (3 Marks)

  • Principles of thermodynamics: Laws of conservation of energy- first and second laws and its relevance in the biological system, entropy, and enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, bioenergetics endothermic and exothermic reactions of biological systems, energy change in the biochemical reactions, sources of heat limits to temperature, heat dissipation, and conservation.
  • Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry: Beer-Lambert’s law, visible absorption spectrum, molar extinction coefficient, colorimeter, spectrophotometer, fluorescence, phosphorescence.
    Centrifugation: Principle of sedimentation technique, different types of centrifuge and rotors, principle and procedure and application of differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, ultracentrifugation rate zonal centrifugation, Isopycnic centrifugation
    pH meter: Principle and working.
    A brief account of densitometry, fluorimetry, manometry, polarography, atomic absorption spectroscopy, IR, NMR and X-ray crystallography, and Mass spectrometry.
    Electrophoresis: Principle, procedure, and application of zone electrophoresis-, paper electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis (native PAGE, SDS-PAGE).
  • Isotopes and radioisotopes: Isotopes and radioisotopes: radiations- ionizing radiations, Application of isotopes and radioisotopes in biological research, radioisotope tracer technique and autoradiography.

Module II- Biochemistry & Enzymology (2 Marks)

  • Normality, molality, molarity, percentage solution, mole fraction, parts per million, simple numerical problems from the above, fundamental principles of diffusion, osmosis, osmotic pressure, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids – their detection methods, Enzymes- Classification and nomenclature, enzyme activation, enzyme inhibition- competitive and non-competitive, allosteric regulation, purification of enzymes, coenzymes.

Module III- Microbiology (3 Marks)

  • Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, mycoplasma, the concept of microbial species, strains; microbial cell surfaces, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Motility in bacteria, kinds of flagella, Nutrition of Bacteria and Fungi, nutritional classification of bacteria.
  • Microbial Diversity: Bacterial population of Air, Water, and Soil
  • Viruses: Viruses, phage culture, Bacteriophage, DNA and RNA phages, T4 phage, Llytic and
  • lysogenic cycles, host cell adsorption, and penetration, synthesis phage nucleic acid.
  • Microbes in extreme environments: Thermophiles and alkalophilic, pathogenic microorganisms- bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoans, and mycoplasma, a defense mechanism against microorganisms, symbiosis and antibiosis among the microbial population, nitrogène fixing bacteria in agriculture and forestry, photosynthetic bacteria, Role of bacteria in carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorous cycle in nature.

Cultivation of Bacteria: 

  • Culture media – requirements of bacterial culture media, types, and uses, Bacterial growth curve, microbial metabolism, fermentation, different types of fermentation, methanogenic bacteria.
  • Isolation of pure culture: Spread plate, streak plate, pour plate, etc., synthetic media, simple and complex media. Isolation of anaerobes and their culture techniques, slant culture, and stab culture.
  • Pollution and Microbial population, detection and isolation of bacteria and fungi from the environment; Environmental monitoring of microbial load of wastewater, wastewater treatment and purification of water, BOD, and COD as a microbial load of wastewater.
  • Detoxification of polluted water with microbial treatment and Microbial analysis of potable water.

Industrial microbes and their uses

  • Production of food (dairy and SCP) and drugs (antibiotics such as penicillin & streptomycin), products of fermentation, Strain improvement by enrichment mutation and recombinant DNA technique, production of heterologous proteins of interest in microorganisms.
  • Microbes of Dairy and food Industry, Food preservation and processing of food,

Control of microorganisms

  • Physical agents, chemical agents, antibiotics, and other therapeutic agents

Bacterial cell structure and Growth – Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells, Glycocalyx, bacterial cell membranes, bacterial cell wall, cytoplasm, spores, organs of locomotion, chemotaxis in bacteria, ribosomes in bacteria, bacterial nucleus and chromosomes, bacterial nucleoid. Bacterial Growth curve, Measurement of growth, factors affecting the growth of bacteria.
Nutrition in bacteria-classification based on nutrition- autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms- purple sulfur bacteria, Saprophytes and parasites-pathogenic parasites.
Nitrogen Metabolism- Biological nitrogen fixation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, components involved in the process of nitrogen fixation, Inorganic nitrogen metabolism, assimilation of inorganic nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle.
Energy production in bacteria- Energy and ATP, aerobic respiration, Glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation in Bacteria, catabolism of other carbohydrates. Photosynthesis in bacteria
Anaerobic respiration- Fermentation, alcohol fermentation by yeasts and bacteria, lactic acid fermentation, Methanogenic bacteria, Acetobacter, and acetic acid fermentation.
Application of bacterial metabolism in industry and agriculture, economically important bacteria – lactic acid bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, etc.

Lichens, mycorrhizae, pollution indicators, etc.

Microbial Diseases of Humans
Airborne bacterial diseases – streptococcal; diseases, tuberculosis, Pneumococcal Pneumonia, Klebsiella Pneumonia,
Foodborne and waterborne bacterial diseases- Foodborne and waterborne intoxications-Botulism, Staphylococcal food poisoning; Foodborne and waterborne infections- Typhoid fever, salmonellosis, Cholera, Shigellosis, E.coli Diarrheas, Brucellosis
Soilborne bacterial diseases- Anthrax, Tetanus, Leptospirosis,
Viral diseases of Humans- Pneumotropic viral diseases-Influenza, Adenoviral infections,
Rhinoviral infections,
Dermatoviral diseases- Herpes simplex, chickenpox, Measles, Rubella, Viscerotropic Viral diseases- yellow fever, Dengue fever, Neurotropic viral diseases- rabies, Polio

Module IV- Molecular Biology (2 Marks)

  • Introduction

DNA, replication of DNA, RNA, and Types of RNA. Transcription, translation, transcriptional and translational modifications, ORF, Eukaryotic and prokaryotic differences in the genetic makeup and processing, genes, transposons, mutations and repair of nucleic acids,
Gene and gene regulation – transcription and translation, Protein synthesis, and Protein trafficking.
Transfer of genetic information in bacteria, Bacterial chromosomes- DNA, Plasmids, different types of plasmids- non-conjugative, mobilizable plasmids, resistance plasmids

  • Bacterial recombination: Conjugation- Fertility factors, F+ and F- cells, F pili, High-frequency recombination, Transformation- Griffith’s effect, evidence of DNA as genetic material, Transduction- general characteristics of bacteriophages, Lambda phage-general structure, general multiplication in bacteria- lytic phase and lysogenic phase, bacterial recombination through transduction, Phages and plasmids as vectors for genetic engineering, Bacterial recombination, and transferable drug resistance.

Module V- Immunology & Immuno technology (2 Marks)

The Human Immune System: Organs and cells of the immune system and immunity, innate and specific or acquired immunity, Immune system- organs, tissues and cells involved in immunity, Humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, antigens, antibodies, immunogens, haptens. Immunoglobulins, structure and functions, Antibody-antigen interaction, antigen-antibody reactions, agglutination, immuno-diffusion, immuno-electrophoresis, ELISA, RIE, production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma technology, Immunity to infections of diseases: vaccines – attenuated and recombinant vaccines, vaccination. therapeutic antibodies
Autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; Myasthenia gravis; Rheumatoid Arthritis, Pernicious anemia, Asthma.

Module VI- Recombinant DNA Technology (2 Marks)

  • Tools of recombinant DNA technology- Restriction endonucleases, classification and general characteristics of endonucleases; other enzymes used in the recombinant DNA technique- DNA ligase, alkaline phosphatase;
  • Vectors, the vehicle for cloning: special features needed for a vector, Various types of cloning vectors- plasmid cloning vectors- pBR322, Expression vectors, the pUC series, Bacteriophage cloning vectors -phage cloning vectors, M13 based vectors,  Phagemids and Cosmid vectors, Artificial Chromosomes: Yeast Artificial vectors (YACs), Bacterial artificial Vectors (BACs), Application for YAC and BAC,-
    genome sequencing
  • Shuttle vectors for animals and plants, mammalian vectors; Gene Therapy- Vectors for gene therapy.
  • Construction of recombinant DNA, host cells, competent cells, bacterial transformation, screening methods of transformed cells, Various methods of genetic transformation in eukaryotes- Direct gene transfer and vector-mediated gene transfer, Screening methods of transformed cells and organisms.
  • Molecular hybridization techniques for genome analysis: RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, Southern hybridization PCR: Principle and applications, Nucleic acid sequencing: Principle and applications, Genome sequencing methods, Human genome project– a brief account.Gene expression analysis – Northern hybridization and microarrays. Transgenic organisms and their impact in agriculture, Medicine and Environment, Biosafety and Ethics in Genetic Engineering.

Module VII-  Industrial and Food Biotechnology (4 Marks)

  • Industrial Microbiology: Microbes in the industry- Industrially important microorganisms, screening and isolation, industrially important enzymes and chemicals, Industrial production of enzymes and chemicals, Microbial production of antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids and other organic acids
  • Fermentation- The biological process of fermentation- various types of fermentation, alcohol fermentation, Respiration vs Fermentation – Important products of fermentation. Fermentation as an industry, selection of industrial microorganisms for specific products and reactions,
    Laboratory scale biological process- scale-up of biological reactions into bioprocess; Bioreactors-types of bioreactors / Fermentors, Bioreactors for bacteria and yeast cells, Fermentors for plant cell cultures and animal cell cultures,
    Microbes of food and fermented food– Curd, wheat and rice flour, Meat and fish, Poultry and Eggs, Breads and bakery products, Grains, Microorganism in food spoilage, types of spoilage, canning, microbes in the spoilage of canned foods, principles of preservation of foods, Hazardous effect of food spoilage, mycotoxins;
    Industrial production of antibiotics (penicillin & streptomycin) and organic acids (acetic acid & Citric acids)
    Microorganisms as food and food supplements – fermented food, microalgaeSingle cell protein, Edible mushrooms. Microbes in the dairy industry, dairy products; microbial processing of foods- enzymes in food processing.
    Agricultural waste and food industry wastes as the substrate for fermentation, solid state fermentation; production of single cell proteins, microbial production of enzymes;
    Microbiome and its importance disease prevention maintenance of health, Probiotics various types of probiotics and its importance.

Module VIII- Environmental Biotechnology (4 Marks)

  • Ecosystem, Biodiversity, Types of ecosystem and biosphere;
  • Pollution: sources of pollution, Greenhouse effect, general characteristics of domestic wastes, community wastes, agricultural wastes, the effect of solid waste in the environment
  • Types of pollution, Organic load in aquatic systems, BOD and COD, microbial quality of water, drinks, and food Use of biotechnology in the treatment of municipal wastes and hazardous industrial effluents
  • Bioremediation: Microbial degradation of pesticides, herbicides, and other toxic chemicals in the environment, Biological control of pests and insects, BiopesticidesBacillus thuringiensis, bioherbicides; Plants used in metal remediation, plants and algae used in phytoremediation and their mechanisms
    Application of biotechnology in the production of biofertilizers and nitrogen fixation – nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, mycorrhiza
  • Renewable and non-renewable energy resources: conventional fuels and their environmental impacts (fire word, animal oils, coal, petroleum)
  • Non-conventionnel Energy Sources
  • Biomass: utilization of biomass as an energy source– application of microbes in the production of fuels from biomass- biogas and methanogenic bacteria, microbial hydrogen production, production of methanol, ethanol, and other types of chemicals from biomass and agricultural wastes, the gasohol experiment
  • Solar energy converter hopes from photosynthetic pigments, vegetable oils as engine fuels, energy crops-jojoba;
    Possibility of the plant-based petroleum industry and cellulose degradation for combustible fuels
  • Bioleaching Enrichment of ores by microorganisms (bioaccumulation and biomineralization); Bio-assessment of environmental quality.

Module IX:  Plant and Animal Biotechnology (2 Marks)

  • Plant tissue culture:
    Fundamental principles of in vitro plant cultures: use of plant growth regulators, the composition of tissue culture media- media components and its functions.Types of in vitro cultures
    Callus cultures, cell suspension cultures, organ cultures- root cultures, hairy root cultures, embryo cultures, anther culture; their applications,
  • Genetic engineering of plants
    Methods of gene transfer in plants –Physical, chemical, and biological methods
    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tumor formation in plants by A. tumefaciens, application of A. tumefaciens in plant genetic engineering, Virus mediated gene transfer in plants.
  • Transgenic plants
    Transgenic crops, Impact of transgenic plants in agriculture and Horticulture, Non-Agricultural applications of transgenic plants- Biopharming- production of therapeutic proteins in transgenic plants, edible vaccines, disease resistant, salt tolerant, pest resistant and stress-tolerant crop and medicinal plants, Metabolic engineering of plants for enhanced and controlled production of plant products.
  • Application of Animal Cell Cultures
    Uses of animal cell cultures, Products of animal cell cultures- hormones (insulin, growth hormones), interferon,t-plasminogen activator, factor VIII, Factor IX and virus cultivation;
    Expression of cloned proteins in animal cells, production of vaccines in animal cells, production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies-hybridoma technology
    Transgenic animals and their practical uses

Module X:  Bioinformatics (1 Mark)

  • Databases-various types of databases, Biological Databases- Importance of databases in technology, NCBI, Gene bank, PubMed. Etc.
  • Genomics and Proteomics-Definitions, Application of Proteomics and Genomics in Biotechnology

Part III: Chemistry (25 marks)

  • Quantum mechanics and Chemical bonding (2 marks)
    Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation, postulates of quantum mechanics, Wave function, Translational motion, Vibrational motion, Rotational motion, hydrogen atom, Shapes of orbitals, Molecular orbital theory, Basis set, STO, GTO, Hybridisation, Spectroscopic terms,
  • Coordination Chemistry (2 marks)
    Charge transfer spectra, Term symbols, electronic spectra of complexes, Orgel diagrams, Tanabe-Sugano diagram, Magnetic properties of complexes, Magnetic moment, and Applications of coordination complexes
  • Analytical Chemistry (5 marks)
    Titrimetric, gravimetric and colorimetric analysis, Errors- Types of errors, accuracy, and precision.
    Spectroscopic methods – UV-Visible, IR, NMR, and Mass spectroscopy.
    Separation techniques- Solvent extraction, Extraction of metal ions and organic species from aqueous solutions, Chromatography
    Instrumental techniques- Principle and application of Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential thermal analysis, AAS, X-ray fluorescence, and gas chromatography
  • Colloids and Surface chemistry (3 marks)
    Colloids- Classification, Properties of colloids, zeta potential, Methods of molecular mass determination, Surfactants, Micelle formation, CMC, Emulsification,
    Adsorption- Applications, adsorption isotherms- Freundlich, Langmuir, BET and Gibbs adsorption isotherms. Measurement of surface area, the Adsorption behavior of porous materials-theory of surface reactions- molecular sieves, -Micropore analysis morphology and particle size analysis- SEM, TEM, AFM, and HR-TEM analysis
  • Green chemistry (3 marks)
    Need of green chemistry, Principles of green chemistry, Green solvents, Microwave and
    ultrasound-assisted reactions, enzymes as catalysts
  • Environmental chemistry (10 marks)
    Environmental segments, oxygen cycle, Nitrogen cycle, hydrological cycle, Toxic chemicals in the environment, Greenhouse effect
    Air pollution –Air pollutants, Greenhouse effect, Global warming, Ozone depletion, Effect of hydrocarbons, smoke, and oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon on human and plant systems, Control methods of air pollution.
    Soil pollution- Soil formation, soil acidification, liming of soil, Industrial and urban wastes, Landfills, control of soil pollution
    Water pollution- Sources, Eutrophication, DO, BOD, COD, water quality criteria for domestic and industrial uses, Water quality parameters and their determination, Sewage treatment, Principles and methods of wastewater management.Removal of organic and inorganic matter from water. International standards for drinking water.
    Thermal and radioactive pollution:-Sources and control of radioactive pollution and thermal pollution, Effects of radioactive pollution. Biological effects of radiation, Radioactive waste management.
    Noise pollution- Noise – general features, control of noise pollution.
    Chemical toxicology – Toxic chemicals in the environment, Effects of toxic chemicals, Pesticides, fertilizers, and their biochemical effects.

Part IV: Environmental Science/ Life Science (25 Marks)

Module 1 (5 marks)

  • Classification of elements, Stoichiometry, Gibbs’ energy, chemical potential, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibria, the solubility of gases in water, the carbonate system, unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, radioisotopes. Dissociation of water, ionic products of water, the concept of pH and pOH, redox potential, types of acids, bases, buffers and electrolytes. Dissociation of weak acids and electrolytes. Meaning pKa
    values, buffers and mechanism of action. Handerson Hassel’s baach equation. Molecular interactions. Noncovalent interactions and covalent interactions with examples. Meaning of normality, molality and molarity. Percentage solutions and mole fractions. Simple numerical values from the above. Laws of thermodynamics, heat transfer processes, mass and energy transfer across various interfaces, and material
    balance. Principles of diffusion and osmosis, the definition of osmotic pressure. Sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, filtration, Influence of ionization and molecular size on osmotic pressure. Isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic solutions definition and examples. Meaning of true solutions, colloidal solutions and coarse suspensions. The distinction between lyophilic and lyophobic salts with examples. Elementary study of charge on colloids, Tyndall effect. Emulsions and emulsifying agents and examples. Reverse osmosis and its applications. Isomerism- stereoisomerism, optical isomerism.

Module 2 (5 marks)

  • Biomolecules-carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides classification with examples. The basic structure of proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Enzymes-properties, factors affecting its action, and the basic mechanism of action. Name of methods for the detection of carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins in a solution. Denaturation of proteins and DNA. Precipitation reactions of proteins. Polymers. Natural polymers, semisynthetic polymers, synthetic polymers, definitions, and examples. Examples of addition polymers are condensation polymers, elastomers, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. Difference between natural and synthetic rubber. Biodegradable polymers. Biodegradable plastics are polyhydroxy alkanoates and polyhydroxy butyrates. Detoxification of toxic chemicals in the human body- site and basic mechanism. Biochemical effects of heavy metals on the human body.

Module 3 (5 marks)

  • Common microbes in soil, water, and air and their importance. Methods of microbial control. Physical and chemical methods with examples and their mechanism of action. Preparation of different cultural media. Preparation of slants, butts, and plates. Use of differential and selective media with examples. Inoculation techniques and study of growth. Identification of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Microbiological analysis of water purity, indicator organisms, groundwater quality, and domestic water treatment systems. Biofilms, microbial mats, water, and disease transmission. Microbial diversity in soil. Biogeochemical role of soil microorganisms. Distribution and sources of airborne organisms. Droplet and droplet
    nuclei. Examples of foodborne microbial diseases. Food adulterants, artificial sweeteners, artificial colors, artificial flavors. Common microbial toxins and fungal toxins in stale food. Importance of biotechnology in industrial pollution control paper industry, textile industry, petrochemical industries, and mining industries. Municipal solid waste management, the role of composting and vermicomposting.
    Disposal of solid wastes- sanitary landfilling and its management, incineration of solid wastes. E wastes- classification and method of handling and disposal. Fly ash sources, composition, and utilization. Plastic wastes- sources, consequences, and management. Environmental disasters- Meenamatha disaster, Love Canal disaster, Bhopal gas disaster, Chornobyl disaster, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Epidemiological issues like fluorosis, arsenicosis,

Module 4 (6 marks)

  • Concept of the ecotone, edge effects, ecological habitats, and niche. Ecosystem stability and factors affecting stability. Composition of air. Particles, ions and radicals in the atmosphere. Chemical speciation. Chemical processes in the formation of inorganic and organic particulate matter, thermochemical and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere, and Oxygen and Ozone chemistry. Photochemical smog, particulate air pollutants. Smoke, dust, mist, fumes and their sources. Smog, classical, and photochemical smog with examples and their effects and control measures. Global warming and greenhouse effect, acid rain, ozone hole. Assessment of air quality, and air sanitation. Examples of airborne microbial diseases. Water pollution- Organic wastes, in water, chemical pollutants, and heavy metal pollutants. Water analysis for chemical detection. Eutrophication. Biosensors for environmental monitoring. Soil pollution pesticides and their types, herbicides and their types, industrial wastes, biodegradable and nonbiodegradable, with examples. Biodegradation of herbicides and pesticides. Bioinsecticide use. Radioactive wastes-sources and management. Measurement of the level of pollution- Chemical oxygen demand. Suspended solids. Biological oxygen demand. Ammoniacal nitrogen content and biological indicators. Biological magnification. Sources and effects of noise pollution. Noise standards. Environmental education, major conservation efforts of the World Wildlife Fund, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and Environmental Information System (ENVIS).

Module 5 (4 marks)

  • Microscopy- basic principle and technique of compound and electron microscope. Principle, basic technique and uses of photoelectric colorimeter and spectrophotometer. Basic techniques and application of chromatography, paper, thin layer, gel, gas, and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Principle and basic technique of electrophoreses like gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The basic technique of recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Basics of blotting techniques and their application. Basic principles of PCR and its applications. NMR technique, Mass spectroscopy, Measurement of radioactivity- Geiger- Muller and Scintillation counters, autoradiography and its applications. Biotechnological management of solid and liquid wastes. Uses of immobilized enzymes with examples. Genetic engineering- Importance in pollution control. Bioremediation, and biosorption techniques to control pollution.
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