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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Swadeshi Movement

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Swadeshi Movement

The Swadeshi movement (1905–1911) is the most important phase of the Indian National
Movement in the pre-Gandhian era.
Evolution of the ideas and views of Swadeshi
Mahadev Govind Ranade
 1872 -Mahadev Govind Ranade popularised the idea of Swadeshi in a series of lectures in
 According to Ranade, Swadeshi means ‘of one’s own country’.
 He explained that the goods produced in one’s own country should be given preference
even if the use of such goods proved to be less satisfactory.

 1920s- Gandhi gave a new meaning to the idea of Swadeshi.
 Gandhi defined Swadeshi as “Swadeshi is that spirit in us which restricts us to the use and
service of our immediate surroundings to the exclusion of more remote. I should use only
things that are produced by my immediate neighbours and serve those industries by
making them efficient and complete where they may be found wanting.”
G. Subramaniam
He explained the aim of the swadeshi movement as ‘a revolt against their state of
dependence…in all branches of their national life’.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
 According to him ‘the swadeshi movement is not only for the improvement of our
industry but for an allround enhancement of our national life’.
 As the movement progressed, different definitions of Swadeshi appeared.
Major Trends In Swadeshi Movement

1. Constructive Swadeshi
 The constructive Swadeshi programmes largely stressed upon self-help.
 It focused on building alternative institutions of self-governance that would operate
entirely free from British control.
 It also laid emphasis on the need for self-strengthening of the people which would help
in creating a worthy citizen before the launch of political agitations.
 It remained non-political in nature.
 Rabindranath Tagore outlined the constructive programme of atmashakti (self-help).
 Tagore called for economic self- development and insisted that education should be
provided in swadeshi languages.
 He spread the message of atmashakti through melas, or fairs.
 This became the creed of the whole of Bengal and swadeshi shops sprang all over the
place selling textiles, handlooms, soaps, earthenware and leather goods.
 Moderates focused on self-help through swadeshi industries, national schools,
arbitration courts and constructive programmes in the villages.
 1902 – Dawn Society formed by Satish Chandra with the idea of education in vernacular
 5 November 1905 – The National Council of Education was formed.
 August 1906- Bengal National College and a School were founded.

 Satish Chandra who made a passionate appeal to the students to come out of
‘institutions of slavery.’ Such efforts, however, failed to attract many due to the bleak
job prospects.

2. Samitis
 Formation of samitis means corps of volunteers.
 The samitis were engaged in a range of activities such as physical and moral training of
members, philanthropic work during the famines, epidemics, propagation of Swadeshi
message during festivals, and organization of indigenous arbitration courts, and schools.
 Main aim was to refuse to cooperate with the British administration.
 But these mass mobilization efforts failed to flourish as they could not extend their base
among the Muslim peasantry and the “Depressed Classes”.
 Most of the samitis recruited from the educated middle class and other upper caste
 Besides this, the swadeshi campaigners often applied coercive methods, both social and
 For instance, social boycott of those purchasing foreign goods was common and taken
up through caste associations and other nationalist organisations.

3. Passive Resistance
 From 1906, the Swadeshi Movement took a different turn due to abrogation of
 For many leaders, the movement was to be utilized for propagating the idea of the
political independence or Swaraj across India.
 The constructive programmes came under heavy criticism from Aurobindo Ghose, Bipin
Chandra Pal, and other militant leaders.
 Under their new direction, the swadeshi agenda included boycott of foreign goods;
boycott of government schools and colleges; boycott of courts; renouncing the titles and
relinquishing government services; and recourse to armed struggle if British repression
went beyond the limits of endurance.

 1902 – Dawn Society founded
 5 November 1905 – The National Council of Education was formed.
 August 1906- Bengal National College and a School were founded


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