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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Rowlatt Satyagraha

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Rowlatt Satyagraha

 In 1917, a committee was set up under the Presidentship of Sir Sydney Rowlatt to look
into the militant Nationalist activities.

 March 1919 – Rowlatt Act was passed by the Central Legislative Council, on the basis of
rowlatt commission report
 This Act empowered the government to imprison any person without trial.
Rowlatt act
 Rowlatt act an extension to the Defence of India Regulations Act 1915. It was passed in
March 1919.
 Rowlatt act was based on the recommendations made in the Imperial Legislative Council
by the Rowlatt Commission, headed by the British judge, Sir Sidney Rowlatt, to
investigate the ‘seditious conspiracy’ of the Indian people.
 As per this Act, any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion.
 No appeal or petition could be filed against such arrests.
 Rowlatt Act was called the Black Act and it was widely opposed.
 The law of habeas corpus, the basis of civil liberty, was sought to be suspended.
Rowlatt Satyagraha
 Satyagraha Sabha – Founded by Gandhi, which pledged to disobey the Act first.
 An all-India hartal was organized on 6 April 1919.
 It was to be a non-violent struggle with fasting and prayer, and it was the earliest
anticolonial struggle spread across the country.
 The symbol of this change was to be khadi, which soon became the uniform of
nationalists. India’s Swaraj would be a reality only when the masses awakened and
became active in political work.
 The anti-Rowlatt protest was intense in Punjab, especially in Amritsar and Lahore.
 Gandhi was arrested near Delhi and prevented from visiting Punjab.
 9 April 1919 – Two prominent leaders Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal were
arrested in Amritsar.
 Martial law was declared.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
 The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on 13 April 1919 and it remained a turning
point in the history of India’s freedom movement.
 The villagers had assembled there in thousands to celebrate Baisaki day (spring harvest
festival of Sikhs).
 On 13 April 1919 a public meeting was arranged at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar.

More than two thousand people had assembled at the venue to peacefully protest against the
arrest of their leaders Satyapal and Saifudding Kitchlew.
General Dyer’s Brutality
 Michael O’Dyer was the Lt. Governor of Punjab and the military commander was
General Reginald Dyer
 As it happened to be General Reginald Dyer, on hearing of the assemblage, surrounded
the place with his troops and an armoured vehicle.
 The only entrance to the park that was surrounded on all sides by high walls was
blocked, and firing took place without any warning.
 The firing continued for about 10 to 15 minutes and it stopped only after the
ammunition exhausted.
 According to official report, 379 people were killed and 1137 wounded in the incident.
 There was a nation- wide protest against this massacre.
 Finally, after the massacre Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood as a protest.
 Gandhi surrendered his Kaiser-i-Hind medal.
 The Jallianwala Bagh massacre gave a tremendous impetus to the freedom struggle.

Hunter Committee
 October 14, 1919 – the Disorders Inquiry committee popularly called as Hunter
Committee/Commission was formed by Secretary of state Edwin Montagu.
 Lord William Hunter – Chairman
 Sir Chimanlal Harilal Setalvad, Vice-Chancellor of Bombay University and advocate of the
Bombay High Court; Pandit Jagat Narayan, lawyer, and Member of the Legislative
Council of the United Provinces; and Sardar Sahibzada Sultan Ahmad Khan, lawyer from
Gwalior State are the three Indians members in the committee.
 Purpose – to investigate about Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre
 Dyer’s actions had been “inhuman and un-British” and had greatly injured the image of
British rule in India.
 The Hunter Committee did not impose any penal or disciplinary action because Dyer’s
actions were condoned by various superiors (later upheld by the Army Council).

 The government had passed an Indemnity Act for the protection of its officers before
the Hunter Committee began its proceedings.
 The “white washing bill” as the Indemnity Act was called, was severely criticised by
Motilal Nehru and others.
Udham Singh
 Udham Singh – A Sikh teenager who was raised at Khalsa Orphanage.
 30 March 1940 -He assassinated Michael O’Dyer in Caxton Hall of London.
 Udham Singh was hanged at Pentonville jail, London
Khilafat Movement
 The First World War came to an end in 1918.
 The Caliph of Turkey, who was considered the head of Muslims of the world, was given
a harsh treatment.
 A movement was started his support called the Khilafat Movement.
Khilafat Issue
 The Muslims in India, as the Muslims all over the world, regarded the sultan of Turkey
Khalifa, as their spiritual leader.
 During the war, Turkey had allied with Germany and Austria against the British.
 When the war ended, the British took a stern attitude towards Turkey.
 Turkey was dismembered and the Khalifa removed from power. This incensed Muslims
all over the world.
Demands of Muslims
 The Khalifa’s control over Muslim sacred places should be retained.
 The Khalifa should be left with sufficient territories after territorial arrangements.
Khilafat Movement
 Led by the Ali brothers, Maulana Mohamed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.
 Aim – To restore the prestige and power of the Caliphate.
 Gandhi supported the movement and saw in it an opportunity to unite Hindus and
 19th October 1919 – A Khilafat Committee had been formed, the whole country had
observed the Khilafat day

 November 1919 – All India Khilafat Conference held at Delhi was presided over by
Gandhi. In this conference a call was made for the boycott of British
 23 November 1919 – A joint conference of the Hindus and the Muslims had also been
held under the chairmanship of Mahatma Gandhi
 Gandhi supported Shaukat Ali’s proposal of three national slogans, Allaho Akbar, Bande
Mataram and Hindu-Musslamanki Jai
 9 June 1920 – The Khilafat Committee meeting in Allahabad. In this meeting Gandhi’s
non-violent noncooperation programme was adopted.
 1 August 1920 – Non-Cooperation was begin
Congress Stand on Khilafat Question
 Gandhi was in favour of launching Satyagraha and non-cooperation against the
government on the Khilafat issue, but the Congress was not united on this form of
political action.
 Tilak was opposed to having an alliance with Muslim leaders over a religious issue.
 There was opposition to some of the other provisions of the Gandhi’s non-cooperation
programme also, such as boycott of councils.
 Later, however, Gandhi was able to the get the approval of the Congress for his
programme of political action and the Congress felt inclined to support a non-
cooperation programme on the Khilafat question because it was felt that this was a
golden opportunity to cement Hindu-Muslim unity and to bring Muslim masses into the
national movement.
 The Muslim League also decided to give full support to the Congress and its agitation on
political questions.


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