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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Provisions and Evaluation

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Provisions and Evaluation

Important Provisions of Indian Council Act 1909

 The elective principle was recognised for the non – official membership of the councils
in India. Indians were allowed to participate in the election of various legislative
councils, though on the basis of class and community.
 The number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial
Legislative Councils was increased.
 In the provincial councils, non-official majority was introduced, but since some of these
non-officials were nominated and not elected, the overall non-elected majority
 According to Sumit Sarkar, in the Imperial Legislative Council, of the total 69 members,
37 were to be the officials and of the 32 non-officials, 5 were to be nominated and 27
was elected.

 Of the 27 elected non-officials, 8 seats were reserved for the Muslims under separate
electorates, while 4 seats were reserved for the British capitalists, 2 for the landlords
and 13 seats came under general electorate.
 The number of “additional members” of the Central Legislative Council was increased
to a maximum of 60. Among these 27 elected members and 33 nominated members
not more than 28 were to be officials.
 The number of members of the Executive Councils in Bombay and Madras, was raised
from 2 to 4 and also practice of appointing Indians to these Councils began.
 Two Indians were also appointed to the India Council in England.
 The elected members were to be indirectly elected.
 Besides separate electorates for the Muslims, representation in excess of the strength
of their population was accorded to the Muslims. Also, the income qualification for
Muslim voters was kept lower than that for Hindus.
 The Councils were given right to discuss and pass resolutions on the Budget and on all
matters of public interest. However, the Governor-General had the power to disallow
discussion on the budget.
 For the first time an Indian member Sir S. P. Sinha, was appointed to the Governor-
General’s Executive Council.
 The Minto – Morley reforms never desired to set up a parliamentary form of
government in India. However, the Moderates welcomed the reforms as fairly liberal
 The principle of separate electorates had ultimately led to the partition of India in 1947.

Evaluation of Indian Council Act of 1909
 The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer to the Indian political problem.
 Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress)
was not suitable for India, and he was against the introduction of parliamentary or
responsible government in India.
 The constitutional reforms were, in fact, aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks by
confusing the Moderates and at checking the growth of unity among Indians through
the obnoxious instrument of separate electorates.
 The government aimed at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims against the rising
tide of nationalism.
 The officials and the Muslim leaders often talked of the entire community when they
talked of the separate electorates, but in reality it meant the appeasement of just a
small section of the Muslim elite.
 Besides, the system of election was too indirect and it gave the impression of
“infiltration of legislators through a number of sieves”. And, while parliamentary forms

were introduced, no responsibility was conceded, which sometimes led to thoughtless
and irresponsible criticism of the government.
 Only some members like Gokhale put to constructive use the opportunity to debate in
the councils by demanding universal primary education, attacking repressive policies
and drawing attention to the plight of indentured labour and Indian workers in South


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