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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes- Militant Movements

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Militant Movements

Kanpur Conspiracy Case – 1924
Communist Party of India
 Founded by – M.N. Roy, Abani Mukherji, M.P.T. Acharya, Mohammad Ali and
Mohammad Shafiq, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan then in the Soviet Union in October 1920.
This opened a new radical era in the anti-imperialist struggles in India.

 3 June 1921- The first batch of radicals reached Peshawar.
 The radicals were arrested immediately under the charges of being Bolshevik (Russian
communist agents) comeing to India to create troubles.
 A series of five conspiracy cases were instituted against them between the years 1922
and 1927.
 The first was the Peshawar Conspiracy case followed by the Kanpur (Bolshevik)
Conspiracy case in (1924), and the Meerut Conspiracy case (1929).
 Radicalism spread across the British Provinces in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and also
in industrial centres like Kanpur in United Province (UP) and cities like Lahore where
factories had come up quite early.
 As a result, trade unions emerged in the jute and cotton textile industries, the railway
companies across the country and among workers in the various municipal bodies.
 Bolshevism repressive measures were adopted by the British administration to curb the
radicalisation of politics.
Kanpur Conspiracy case 1924
 To deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation
of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution’, and sent to various jails
 13 persons were originally accused in the Kanpur case: (1) M.N. Roy, (2) Muzaffar
Ahmad, (3) Shaukat Usmani, (4) Ghulam Hussain, (5) S.A. Dange, (6) M. Singaravelar, (7)
R.L. Sharma, (8) Nalini Gupta, (9) Shamuddin Hassan, (10) M.R.S Velayudhun, (11)
Doctor Manilal, (12) Sampurnananda, (13) Satyabhakta.
 8 persons were charge-sheeted under Section 121-A of the Indian Penal Code: M.N. Roy,
Muzaffar Ahmad, S.A. Dange, Nalini Gupta, Ghulam Hussain, Singaravelar, Shaukat
Usmani, and R.L. Sharma.
 Ghulam Hussain turned an approver.
 The accused were arrested spread over a period of six months.
 Sessions Judge H.E. Holmes who had earned notoriety while serving as Sessions Judge of
Gorakhpur for awarding death sentence to 172 peasants for their involvement in the
Chauri Chaura case
 In the Kanpur Conspiracy case, Muzaffar Ahmed, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta and S. A.
Dange were sent to jail, for four years of rigorous imprisonment.
 M.N. Roy and R.L. Sharma were charged in absentia as they were in Germany and
Pondicherry respectively.
 Singaravelar was released on bail due to his ill health.
 Finally the list got reduced to four.
 The trial and the imprisonment, meanwhile, led to some awareness about the
communist activities in India.

 A Communist Defence Committee was formed in British India to raise funds and engage
lawyers for the defence of the accused.
 Apart from these, the native press in India reported the court proceedings extensively.
 December 1925 – A Communist Conference of different communist groups, from all
over India, was held.
 Singaravelar from Tamil Nadu took part in this conference.
 Finally the Communist Party of India was established with Bombay as its Headquarters.
M. Singaravelar (1860 -1946)
 18 February 1860 – Born in Madras.
 He was an early Buddhist, and like many other communist leaders, he was also
associated with Indian National Congress initially.
 After sometime he chose a radical path.
 He organised many trade unions in South India along with Thiru. V. Kalyanasundaram.
 1 May 1923 – He organised the first ever celebration of May Day in the country.
 He was one of the main organisers of the strike in South Indian Railways (Golden Rock,
Tiruchirappalli) in 1928 and was prosecuted for that.


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