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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Individual Satyagraha

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Individual Satyagraha

 August 8, 1940 – Viceroy Linlithgow made an offer in return for Congress support for the
world war, which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’
 Objective of August offer –
 Indians would be set up to frame the new Constitution
 The offer of dominion status, but it was not acceptable to the Congress.
 Gandhi declared limited satyagraha which would be offered by a few individuals known
as individual satyagraha
 October 17, 1940 – individual satyagraha started.
 Vinobha Bhave – First individual satyagrahi, offering Satyagraha near his Paunar ashram
in Maharashtra. and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment
 Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months
 Gandhi suspended the Satyagraha in December 1940.
 It was revived with some changes and groups offered satyagrahas from January 1941
and that was eventually withdrawn in August 1941.
 During this period more than 25,000 people were arrested.
The White Paper
 The third Round Table Conference came to an end in 1932.
 The Congress once more did not take part in it.
 March 1933 – The British Government issued a White Paper, which became the basis for
the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935
Joint Select Committee
 A Joint Select Committee was formed in 1933 under the leadership of Lord Linlithgow
 A Joint Select Committee was formed to analyse the recommendations and formulate a
new Act for India.
 A Joint Select Committee submitted report on 11 November 1934
 The committee produced a draft Bill in 22 January 1935 which was enforced as the
Government of India Act of 1935 in August 1935.
Government of India Act 1935
 The Government of India Act of 1935 was passed on the basis of the report of the Simon
Commission, the outcome of the Round Table Conferences and the White Paper issued
by the British Government in 1933.
 This Act contained many important changes over the previous Act of 1919.

The salient features of this Act.
 The establishment of an All India Federation at the Centre, consisting of the Provinces of
British India and the Princely States.
 An All India Federation – It consists of all British Indian provinces and all chief
Commissioner’s provinces and the Indian states (princely states).
 States with allotment of 52 seats in the proposed Council of States should agree to join
the federation
 Aggregate population of states in the above category should be 50 percent of the total
population of all Indian states.
 Division of powers into three lists: Federal, Provincial and Concurrent.
 Introduction of Dyarchy at the Centre.
 In Provinces, Dyarchy was abolished and the Provincial Autonomy was introduced.
 The Governor-General and his councillors administered the “Reserved subjects (foreign
affairs, defence, tribal areas and ecclesiastical affairs).
 The Council of Ministers were responsible for the “Transferred” subjects.
 The Governor was made the head of the Provincial Executive but he was expected to
run the administration on the advice of the Council of Ministers. Thus provincial
government was entrusted to the elected Ministers. They were responsible to the
popularly elected Legislative Assemblies.
 Bicameral legislature includes the Council of States was to be a 260-member house,
partly directly elected from British Indian provinces and partly (40 per cent) nominated
by the princes.
 The Federal Assembly was to be a 375-member house, partly indirectly elected from
British Indian provinces and partly (one-third) nominated by the princes.
 The election to the Council of States was direct and that to the Federal Assembly,
 Council of States was to be a permanent body with one-third members retiring every
third year. The duration of the assembly was to be 5 years.
 Members of Federal Assembly could move a vote of no-confidence against ministers
whereas Council of States could not move a vote of no-confidence.
 The system of religion and class based electorates was further extended.
 80 per cent of the budget was non-votable
 Governor-general had residuary powers like to restore cuts in grants, certify bills
rejected by the legislature, issue ordinances and exercise his veto.
Government of India Act 1935
Features in Provincial Autonomy

 Provincial autonomy replaced dyarchy.
 Provinces were granted autonomy and separate legal identity.
 Provinces were freed from the superintendence, direction of the secretary of state and
 Provinces derived their legal authority directly from the British Crown.
 Provinces were given independent financial powers and resources. Provincial
governments could borrow money on their own security.
Features in Executive
 Governor becomes the Crown’s nominee and representative to exercise authority on
the king’s behalf in a province.
 Governor have special powers regarding minorities, rights of civil servants, law and
order, British business interests, partially excluded areas, princely states, etc.
 Governor could take over and run administration indefinitely.
Features in Legislature
 Separate electorates based on Communal Award were to be made operational.
 All members were to be directly elected.
 Franchise was extended, women got the right same as men.
 Ministers were to administer all provincial subjects in a council of ministers headed by a
 Ministers were made answerable to and removable by the adverse vote of the
 Provincial legislature could legislate on subjects in provincial and concurrent lists.
 40 per cent of the budget was still not votable.
 Governor could refuse assent to a bill, promulgate ordinances, enact governor’s Acts.
Other provisions
 Provincial Legislatures of Bengal, Madras, Bombay, United Provinces, Bihar and Assam
were made bicameral.
 Extension of the principle of Separate Electorates to Sikhs, Europeans, Indian Christians
and Anglo Indians.
 Establishment of a Federal Court at Delhi with a Chief Justice and 6 judges.
Evaluation of the Act
 Numerous ‘safeguards’ and ‘special responsibilities’ of the governor-general worked as
brakes in the proper functioning of the Act.
 In provinces, the governor still had extensive powers.

 The Act enfranchised 14 per cent of British Indian population.
 The extension of the system of communal electorates and representation of various
interests promoted separate tendencies which culminated in partition of India.
 The Act provided a rigid constitution with no possibility of internal growth.
 Right of amendment was reserved with the British Parliament
British Strategy
 Suppression could only be a short-term.
 In the long run, the strategy was to weaken the national movement and integrate large
segments of the movement into colonial, constitutional and administrative structure.
 Reforms would revive the political standing of constitutionalist liberals and moderates
who had lost public support during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
 Reforms used to create dissensions within Congress right wing placated through
constitutional concessions and radical leftwing to be crushed through police measures.
 Provincial autonomy would create powerful provincial leaders who would gradually
become autonomous centres of political power.
 Congress would thus be provincialised and the central leadership would get weakened.
Nationalists’ Response
 The 1935 Act was condemned by nearly all sections and unanimously rejected by the
 The Hindu Mahasabha and the National Liberal Foundation, however, declared
themselves in favour of the working of the 1935 Act in the central as well as at the
provincial level.
Congress and 1935 act
 The Congress demanded, the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis
of adult franchise to frame a constitution for independent India. But British denied the
Congress demands.
 Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Bose, and Congress socialists and communists were opposed
and boycotted the legislature. According to them, it would be like assuming
responsibility without power.
 Patel, Rajaji and Rajendra Prasad were accepted the 1935 act.

1937 Election
Lucknow Session 1936
 June 18, 1936 – Lucknow session. President – Jawaharlal Nehru

 1935 act was opposed and condemned.
 In early 1936 Lucknow session and 1937 Faizpur session, the Congress decided to fight
elections and postpone the decision on office acceptance to the postelection phase.
Congress Manifesto for election
 August 23, 1936 – Congress released it manifesto
 The Congress manifesto reaffirmed total rejection of the 1935 Act, and promised release
of prisoners, removal of disabilities on the basis of gender and caste, radical
transformation of the agrarian system, substantial reduction of rent and revenue,
scaling down of rural debts, cheap credit and right to form trade unions and to strike.
1937 Election
 February 1937 – The elections to the Provincial Legislatures were held.
 Congress won 7 out of the 11 provinces.
 The Muslim League’s performance was dismal
 The Muslim League won only 4.8 per cent of the Muslim votes
 Hence, the Congress had emerged as a mass secular party
 The Government branded it a Hindu organisation and projected the Muslim League as
the real representative of the Muslims and treated it on a par with the Congress
 17 March 1937 – Delhi
 11 April, 1937 – Minorities party formed
 On 7 July 1937, after the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow, assured the Congress of his
cooperation, the party formed its ministries in seven provinces.
 In the 28 months of Congress rule in the provinces, there were some efforts made for
people’s welfare and provie assent to all bills.
Defects of 1937 election
 Non congress ministries – Governors
 Ministries without Muslim league
 Congress and Princely states
 Provincial autonomy and National freedom


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