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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Indian National Congress – Extremism

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Indian National Congress – Extremism


  • The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in the Indian National movement. 
  • The extremists or the aggressive nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold means. 

Causes for the rise of Extremism

  • The failure of the Moderates to win any notable success other than the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act (1892).
  • The famine and plague of 1896-97 which affected the whole country and the suffering of the masses.
  • The economic conditions of the people became worse.
  • The ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa on the basis of colour of skin.
  • The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05 in which Japan defeated the European power Russia. This encouraged Indians to fight against the European nation, Britain.
  • The immediate cause for the rise of extremism was the reactionary rule of Lord Curzon:
    • 1899-   Calcutta Corporation Act, reducing the Indian control of  local body.
    • 1904- The Universities Act reduced the elected members in the University bodies. It also reduced the autonomy of the universities and made them government departments.
    • The Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act reduced the freedoms of all people.
  • His worst measure was the Partition of Bengal (1905). 

Objective of Extremists

To attain swaraj or complete independence and not just Self-Government

Methods of the Extremists

    • Spirit of self reliance and self- determination.
    • Not cooperating with the British Government by boycotting government courts, schools and colleges.
    • Promotion of Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods.
  • Introduction and promotion of national education.

Important Extremist Leaders

  • Lala Lajpat Rai, 
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak, 
  • Bipin Chandra Pal and
  • Aurobindo Ghosh.

Lala Lajput Rai 

  • Popularly known as the Lion of Punjab or Punjab Kesari
  • He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement.
  • He founded the Indian Home Rule League in the US in 1916.
  • He was deported to Mandalay on the ground of sedition. He received fatal injuries while leading a procession against the Simon Commission.
  •  Died on November 17,1928.
  • Book – Unhappy India  

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

  • Real founder of the popular anti-British movement in India. 
  • He was known as ‘Lokamanya’
  • He was called as Father of Indian unrest by Valentine Cerione
  • Started two weeklies – The Mahratta (English) and the Kesari(Marathi).
  • He was jailed twice by the British for his nationalist activities
  •  27 July 1897, Tilak was arrested and charged under Section 124 A of the Indian Penal Code. 
  • 1908 – Deported to Mandalay for six years. 
  • 1916 – Set up the Home Rule League at Poona and declared “Swaraj is my birthright and I will have it.”
  • Book – Geeta Rahasiya wrote while he was in jail. 

Bipan Chandra Pal

  • He was a moderate and turned an extremist.
  • He played an important role in the Swadeshi Movement. 
  • He preached nationalism through the nook and corner of Indian by his powerful speeches and writings.

Aurobindo Ghosh

  • He actively participated in the Swadeshi Movement. 
  • He was also imprisoned. After his release he settled in the French territory of Pondicherry and concentrated on spiritual activities.



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