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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Impact of First World War

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Impact of First World War

 The First World War had a major impact on the freedom movement.
 Initially, the British didn’t care for Indian support. Once the war moved to West Asia and
Africa the British were forced to look for Indian support
 The First World War provided the objective conditions for the revolutionary activity in
 The revolutionaries wanted to make use of Britain’s difficulty during the War to their
advantage. The Ghadar Movement and Revolutionary groups are the was outcomes.
Ghadar party
 Lala Hardayal, was settled in San Francisco.
 Founded Pacific Coast Hindustan Association in 1913,
 Sohan Singh Bhakna – President of Pacific Coast Hindustan Association.
 Pacific Coast Hindustan Association organization was popularly called Ghadar Party.
(‘Ghadar’ means rebellion in Urdu.)
 The members of this party were largely immigrant Sikhs of US and Canada. The party
published a journal called Ghadar.
 It began publication from San Francisco on November 1, 1913. Later it was published in
Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi and other languages.
 A ship named Komagatamaru, filled with Indian immigrants was turned back from
 As the ship returned to India several of its passengers were killed or arrested in a clash
with the British police.

 This incident left a deep mark on the Indian nationalist movement.
Revolutionary groups
 The revolutionary movements constituted an important landmark in India’s freedom
 It began in the end of the nineteenth century and gained its momentum from the time
of the partition of Bengal.
 The revolutionaries were the first to demand complete freedom.
 Maharashtra, Bengal, Punjab were the major centres of revolutionary activity.
 Madras presidency was also an active ground of the revolutionary activity.
 The government adopted many measures to crush the growing nationalist movement.
 1903 – Lord Curzon created the Criminal Intelligence Department (CID) to secretly collect
information on the activities of nationalists.
 1908 – The Newspapers (Incitement to Offences) Act
 1908 – The Explosives Substances Act
 1910 – The Indian Press Act
 1911 – The Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act were passed.
 The British suspected that some Indian nationalists were in contact with revolutionaries
abroad. So the Foreigners Ordinance was promulgated in 1914 which restricted the
entry of foreigners.
 A majority of these legislations were passed in order to break the base of the
revolutionary movements.
 The colonial state also resorted to banning meetings, printing and circulation of
seditious materials for propaganda, and by detaining the suspects.
The Defence of India Act, 1915
 Also referred to as the Defence of India Regulations Act.
 It was an emergency criminal law enacted with the intention of curtailing the nationalist
and revolutionary activities during the First World War.
 The Act allowed suspects to be tried by special tribunals each consisting of three
Commissioners appointed by the Local Government.
 The act empowered the tribunal to inflict sentences of death, transportation for life, and
imprisonment of up to ten years for the violation of rules or orders framed under the
 The trail was to be in camera and the decisions were not subject to appeal.
 The act was later applied during the First Lahore Conspiracy trial.
 This Act, after the end of First World War, formed the basis of the Rowlatt Act.


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