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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – Gandhian Phase -2

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Gandhian Phase -2

Irwin Declaration & Delhi Manifesto
Calcutta Session of Congress
 December 1928 – Calcutta Congress session, the Nehru Report was approved but the
younger elements led by Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Bose and Satyamurthy expressed
their dissatisfaction with dominion status as the goal of Congress.
 According to them, instead of dominion status the Congress wanted to adopt poorna
swaraj or complete independence as its goal.

 Under pressure from the younger elements, two-year grace period given to the
government to accept the demand for a dominion status was reduced to one year.
 Now, the Congress decided that if the government did not accept a constitution based
on dominion status by the end of the year, the Congress would not only demand
complete independence but would also launch a civil disobedience movement to attain
its goal.
Political Activity during 1929
 Foreign Cloth Boycott Committee – organized by The Congress Working Committee
(CWC) to propagate an aggressive programme of boycotting and public burning of
foreign cloth.
 March 1929 – Gandhi initiated the campaign in Calcutta and was arrested.
 The minority Labour government led by Ramsay McDonald in England come to power in
 Wedgewood Benn became the Secretary of State for India.
 Lord Irwin became the Viceroy of India
Irwin’s Declaration (October 31, 1929)
 Before the Simon Commission report came out, Lord Irwin declaration was made.
 It was the combined effort of the Labour government and a Conservative viceroy.
 Aim – To restore faith in the ultimate purpose of British policy.
 The declaration was made in the form of an official communique in the Indian Gazette
on October 31, 1929.
 It said: I am authorised on behalf of His Majesty’s Government to state clearly that in
their judgement it is implicit in the Declaration of 1917 that the natural issue of India’s
constitutional progress as they contemplated is the attainment of Dominion status.”
 The dominion status promised by Irwin would not be available for a long time to come.
 There was in reality nothing new or revolutionary in the declaration.
 Lord Irwin also promised a Round Table Conference after the Simon Commission
submitted its report.
Delhi Manifesto
 November 2, 1929 – A conference of prominent national leaders issued a ‘Delhi
Manifesto’ which put forward certain conditions for attending the Round Table
1. The purpose of the Round Table Conference is not to determine whether or when
dominion status was to be reached but to formulate a constitution for

implementation of the dominion status (thus acting as a constituent assembly) and
the basic principle of dominion status should be immediately accepted.
2. The Congress should have majority representation at the conference
3. There should be a general amnesty for political prisoners and a policy of conciliation
 Gandhi along with Motilal Nehru and other political leaders met Lord Irwin in December
23, 1929
 They asked the viceroy for assurance that the purpose of the round table conference
was to draft a constitutional scheme for dominion status.
 Viceroy Irwin rejected the demands put forward in the Delhi Manifesto.
Lahore Congress Session 1929
 Lahore session of the Congress has a special significance in the history of the freedom
 In Lahore session the Congress declared that the attainment of complete independence
was the main objective of the Congress.
Lahore Congress Session
 1929 December – Lahore Congress Session – President Jawaharlal Nehru
 15 out of 18 Provincial Congress Committees had opposed Nehru
 Nehru was elected because Congress’ acceptance of complete independence as its goal.
 To acknowledge the upsurge of youth which had made the anti-simon campaign a huge
 Nehru declared in his presidential address, “We have now an open conspiracy to free
this country from foreign rule and you, comrades, and all our countrymen and
countrywomen are invited to join it.”
Major decisions were taken at the Lahore session.
 The Round Table Conference was to be boycotted.
 Complete independence was declared as the aim of the Congress.
 Congress Working Committee was authorised to launch a programme of civil
disobedience including non-payment of taxes and all members of legislatures
were asked to resign their seats.
Poorna Swaraj

 31 December 1929 – The tricolour flag of freedom was hoisted at Lahore on the banks of
River Ravi by Jawaharlal Nehru amidst slogans of Inquilab Zindabad.
 26, January, 1930 – The first Independence (Swarajya) Day, to be celebrated everywhere
every year.
 It was also announced that civil disobedience would be started under the leadership of
The Independence Pledge
 It is the inalienable right of Indians to have freedom
 India must attain poorna swaraj or complete independence.
 We will prepare for complete independence by withdrawing, as far as possible, all
voluntary association from the British government and will prepare for civil
disobedience through non-payment of taxes. By this an end of this inhuman rule is
 We will carry out the Congress instructions for purpose of establishing poorna swaraj.
Gandhi 11 Points Demands
Gandhi presented eleven demands to the government and gave an ultimatum of January 31,
1930 to accept or reject these demands to carry forward the mandate given by the Lahore
Gandhi 11 Demands
 Issues of General Interest
 Specific Bourgeois Demands
 Specific Peasant Demands
Issues of General Interest
 Reduce expenditure on Army and civil services by 50 per cent.
 Introduce total prohibition of liquor.
 Carry out reforms in Criminal Investigation Department (CID).
 Change Arms Act allowing popular control of issue of firearms licences.
 Release political prisoners.
 Accept Postal Reservation Bill.
Specific Bourgeois Demands
 Reduce rupee-sterling exchange ratio to 1s 4d

 Introduce textile protection.
 Reserve coastal shipping for Indians.
Specific Peasant Demands
 Reduce land revenue by 50 per cent.
 Abolish salt tax and government’s salt monopoly.
Effects of Demands
 With no positive response from the government on these demands, the Congress
Working Committee invested Gandhi with full powers to launch the Civil Disobedience
 By February-end, Gandhi had decided to make salt the central formula for the

Civil Disobedience Movement
 The annual session of the Congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. This session
presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru
 The Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution in this session.
 As the government failed to accept the Nehru Report, the Congress gave a call to launch
the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Some of important Gandhi 11point programmes
A charter of demands presented to the Viceroy Lord Irwin with an ultimatum to comply by 31
January 1930. It includes
 Reduction of expenditure on army and civil services by 50%
 Introduction of total prohibition
 Release of all political prisoners
 Reduction of land revenue by 50%
 Abolition of salt tax.
Civil Disobedience Movement
 The Viceroy did not respond to the charter of demands, Gandhi launched the Civil
Disobedience Movement.
 The abolition of salt tax become the theme of Civil Disobedience Movement was a
brilliant tactical decision of Gandhi.

 Salt was an issue which affected every section of the society. It transformed Civil
Disobedience Movement into a mass movement drawing all sections of the population
including women to the streets.
Salt Satyagraha / Dandi March
 The Dandi March was to cover 375 kms (241 miles) from Gandhi’s Sabarmati Ashram to
Dandi on the Gujarat coast. It was completed in 25 days.
 On 12 March 1930 – Gandhi set out from Sabarmati Ashram with 78 followers.
 On 6 April 1930 – Reached Dandi.
 He broke the salt law by picking up a fist full of salt.
 It was symbolic of the refusal of Indians to be under the repressive colonial government
and its unjust laws Dandi March
Effects of Civil Disobedience Movement
 Other forms of protests such as boycott of foreign cloth, picketing of liquor shops, non-
payment of taxes, breaking of forest laws etc. were adopted.
 Women, peasants, tribals, students, even children and all sections participated in the
nation-wide struggle.
 It was the biggest mass movement India had ever witnessed. More than 90,000 people
were arrested.


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