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TNPSC Indian National Movement (INM) Free Notes – All India Home Rule League

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

All India Home Rule League

 World War I and Indians participation in it was the background for the Home Rule
 In 1914 Britain declared war against Germany, the moderate and liberal leadership
extended their support to the British.
 Indian leaders hoped that, in return, the British government would give self-government
after the war.
 But the British administration remained non-committal to such goals and also there was
no change in the British attitude towards India.
 Hence it was seen as a British betrayal to the Indian cause of self-government and led to
a fresh call for a mass movement to pressurise the British government.
Annie Besant
 Besant was Irish by birth and had been active in the Irish home rule.
 1893- She joined the Theosophical Society, and came to India.
 Founded the Central Hindu College in Benaras. In 1916, upgraded as Benaras Hindu
University by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
 1907- H. S. Olcott died, Besant become the international president of the Theosophical
Society. She was actively spreading the theosophical ideas from its headquarters, Adyar
in Chennai, and gained the support of a number of educated followers such as Jamnadas
Dwarkadas, George Arundale, Shankerlal Banker, Indulal Yagnik, C.P. Ramaswamy and
B.P. Wadia. It was in this backdrop that Besant entered into Indian Politics.
 1914- The Commonweal weekly was started. The weekly focussed on religious liberty,
national education, social and political reforms.
 1915- Published a book “How India Wrought for Freedom”. In this book she asserted
that the beginnings of national consciousness are deeply embedded in its ancient past.
 She toured England and made many speeches in the cause of India’s freedom.
 She also tried to form an Indian party in the Parliament but was unsuccessful.
 July 14, 1915 – She started a daily newspaper New India.

 She revealed her concept of self-rule in a speech at Bombay: “I mean by self-
government that the country shall have a government by councils, elected by the
people, and responsible to the House”.
 September 28, 1915- Besant made a formal declaration that she would start the Home
Rule League Movement for India. Objectives of Besant Home rule League was based on
the lines of the Irish Home rule League.
 The moderates did not like the idea of establishing another separate organisation.
 She too realised that the sanction of the Congress party was necessary for her
movement to be successful.
 December 1915 – Due to the efforts of Tilak and Besant, the Bombay session of Congress
suitably altered the constitution of the Congress party to admit the members from the
extremist section.
 In the Bombay congress session she insisted on the Congress taking up the Home Rule
League programme before September 1916, failing which she would organize the Home
Rule League on her own.
Importance of the Home Rule Movement
 Home Rule League was the first Indian political movement to cut across sectarian lines
and have members from the Congress, Theosophist and the Laborites.
 The Home Rule Leagues prepared the ground for mass mobilization paving the way for
the launch of Gandhi’s satyagraha movements.
 Many of the early Gandhian satyagrahis had been members of the Home Rule Leagues.
 They used the organisational networks created by the Leagues to spread the Gandhian
method of agitation.
Twin Objectives of Home Rule League
 Establishment of Home Rule for India in British Empire
 Arousing in the Indian masses a sense of pride for the Motherland.

Tilak Home Rule League
 April 1916 – Tilak Home Rule League was set up at the Bombay Provincial conference
held at Belgaum.
 It League was to work in Maharashtra (including Bombay city), Karnataka, the Central
Provinces and Berar.
 Tilak’s League was organised into six branches and Annie Besant’s League was given the
rest of India.

 Tilak popularised the demand for Home Rule through his lectures.
 The popularity of his League was confined to Maharashtra and Karnataka but claimed a
membership of 14,000 in April 1917 and 32,000 by early 1918.
 23 July 1916 – On his 60th birthday Tilak was arrested for propagating the idea of Home
Besant’s Home Rule League
 September 1916 – Besant herself inaugurated the Home Rule League at Madras, by
finding no signs from the Congress
 Its branches were established at Kanpur, Allahabad, Benares, Mathura, Calicut and
 She made an extensive tour and spread the idea of Home Rule.
 She declared that "the price of India’s loyalty is India’s Freedom".
 The popularity of the League can be gauged from the fact that Jawaharlal Nehru,
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, B. Chakravarti and Jitendralal Banerji, Satyamurti and
Khaliquzzaman were taking up the membership of the League.
British Repression to Suppress Besant League
 As Besant’s Home Rule Movement became very popular in Madras, the Government of
Madras decided to suppress it.
 Students were barred from attending league meetings.
 June 1917- Besant and her associates, B.P. Wadia and George Arundale were interred in
 To support Besant, Sir S. Subramaniam renounced his knighthood.
 Leaders like Madan Mohan Malaviya, and Surendranath Banerjee who had earlier
stayed away from the movement enlisted themselves.
 28 July 1917- At the AICC meeting, Tilak advocated the use of civil disobedience if they
were not released.
 Jamnadas Dwarkadas and Shankerlal Banker, on the orders of Gandhi, collected one
thousand signatures willing to defy the interment orders and march to Besant’s place of
detention. Due to the growing resistance the interned nationalists were released.
August Declaration
 20 August 1917- New Secretary of State Montagu announced that ‘self-governing
institutions and responsible government’ was the goal of the British rule in India.
 Almost overnight this statement converted Besant into a near-loyalist.

 September 1917 Besant was released. She was elected as the President of 1917 INC
Calcutta session.
Decline of Home Rule Movement
Home Rule Movement declined after Besant accepted the proposed Montagu– Chelmsford
Reforms and Tilak went to Britain in September 1918 to pursue the libel case that he had filed
against Valentine Chirol, the author of Indian Unrest.
Indian Home Rule League
 The Indian Home Rule League was renamed as the Commonwealth of India League and
used to lobby British MPs in support of self-government for India within the empire, or
dominion status along the lines of Canada and Australia.
 It was transformed by V.K. Krishna Menon into the India League in 1929.
Time line
 1893 – Annie Besant joined the Theosophical Society.
 1907 – Besant became the International president of the Theosophical Society.
 1914 – The Commonweal weekly started.
 1915 – “How India Wrought for Freedom” a book was published.
 July 14, 1915 – New India – daily newspaper started.
 September 28, 1915 – Home Rule League Movement for India – formal declaration.
 December 1915 – Bombay congress session.
 1916 – Benares Hindu University by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya.
 April 1916 – Tilak Home Rule League
 23 July 1916 – Tilak arrested.
 September 1916 – Besant Home Rule League at Madras
 June 1917 – Besant and her associates, B.P. Wadia and George Arundale were interred in
 July 28, 1917 – AICC meeting convened Tilak advocated the use of civil disobedience.
 20 August 1917 – The new Secretary of State Montagu announced that ‘self-governing
institutions and responsible government’.
 September 1917- Annie Besant elected as the President of Calcutta congress session.
 1929 – Commonwealth of India League into the India League by V.K. Krishna Menon.


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