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TNPSC Geography Free Notes – Transport

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.


Land, Water and Air ways are very important in our usual life

 It is used by all sections of people in the society.
 Shershah suri built the shahi (Royal) road to strengthen and consolidate his empire from
the Indus valley to the Sonar valley in Bengal.
 This road from Kolkata to Peshawar was renamed as Grand Trunk (GT) road during the
British period.
Classification of Roads in India
 National Highways (NH) the longest National highway is NH-7 which runs from Varanasi
in Uttar Pradesh to Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu covering a distance of 2369 km.
 The shortest national highway is NH-47A, which runs from Ernakulum to Kochi port
(Willington Island) covering a distance of 6 km

State Highways
State Highway runs to the length of 1, 76,166 km as of 2016.
District Roads
The total length of the road of this category is 5, 61, 940 km as of 2016
Rural Roads (Village Roads)
 The total length of rural roads in India is 39, 35, 337 km as of 2016.
 Rural roads consist of Panchayat roads, (Zilla Parishad, Panchayat Samiti, Gram
Panchayat); roads of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) and those
constructed by the State PWDs.
 National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) was established in 1995.
 It is an Autonomous body under the Ministry of Surface Transport.
Border Roads
 It was established in 1960
 Border Roads Organization has constructed world’s highest road joining Chandigarh and
Leh in Ladakh.
Golden Quadrilateral:
 5,846 km long road of 4/6 lanes connecting, India’s four metropolitan cities.
 Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai-Delhi.
 This project was launched in 1999.
1. Mumbai-Pune Road,
2. Kolkata-Dumdum Airport road
3. Durgapur-Kolkata road and
4. Yamuna expressway between Delhi and Agra.
International Highways
 These roads connect important highways of India with those of the neighbouring
countries such as Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar
 Road density is the highest in Kerala and lowest in Jammu &Kashmir


 Indian railway system is the main artery of the country’s inland transport.
 Railways are considered as the backbone of the surface transport system of India.
 Indian railways network is the largest in Asia and second largest in the world.
 The Indian railways network 7,349 railway stations.
 The first train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
 In 1951, the systems were nationalized as one unit “The Indian Railways”.
 The Headquarter of Indian Railways is New Delhi.
 For operations and management, the Indian Railways is organized into 17 zones.
 The Northern Railway accounts for the longest route length, followed by the Western
 The first sub-urban railway was started in 1925 in Mumbai.
 Chennai becomes the sixth Indian city with metro railway.
 Gatiman Express is the fastest operational train in India. This train connects New Delhi
and Agra

Konkan railway
One of the important achievements of Indian Railways has been the construction of Konkan
Railway in 1998
Metro Railways in India
 There are 8 cities with metro rail connectivity in India. They are Kolkata (West Bengal),
Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Delhi, Bengaluru (Karnataka), Gurgaon (Haryana), Mumbai
(Maharashtra), Jaipur (Rajasthan) and Kochi (Kerala).
 The metro in Kolkata is the first one in India.
The water transport is of two types- Inland Waterways and Ocean water ways (sea routes).
Inland Waterways
The Inland water ways Authority was setup in 1986.
Oceanic Routes
 There are 13 major and 200 minor or intermediate ports in India.
 The major ports on the east coast are Kolkata (including Haldia Dock), Paradip,
Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin.
 The major ports on the west coast are Kandla, Mumbai, Nhava Seva (Jawaharlal Nehru
Port), New Mangalore, Marmagao and Kochi.
 India has four major shipyards. Hindustan shipyard in Vishakhapatnam, Garden Reach
workshop in Kolkata, Mazagaon Dock in Mumbai, Kochi Shipyard in Kochi.
 India is the second largest ship owning country in Asia and ranks 16th in the World
Air Transport
 Air transport in India made a beginning on 18th February, 1918 when Henry Piquet
carried a mail from Allahabad to Naini.
 In 1953, eight different airlines which were in operation in the country were
 Presently, there are 19 designated international airports in our country.
 1995 -Airports Authority of India (AAI)
 In 2007, the Government of India merged the Air India and Indian Airlines under
National Aviation Corporation of India Limited (NACIL).

The postal service
 The postal service was opened to the public in the country in 1837.
 The first Indian postal stamp was issued in 1852 in Karachi.
 Introduced the Quick Mail Service in 1975
 The Quick Mail Service functions on the basis of the system of PIN (Postal Index
Number) code which was introduced in 1972.
Mass Communication Systems
 Electronic Media: Radio broadcasting in India was started in 1923 by the Radio club of
 It was named as All India Radio (AIR) in 1936 and again it was renamed as Akashwani in
Satellite Communication
 Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) established in 1969.
 INSAT-1B launched on 30th August 1983 is the first communication satellite in INSAT


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