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TNPSC Geography Free Notes – Human Geography

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Human Geography


Types of Minerals

Minerals and related systems in India
 The organisations associated with minerals in India are the Geological Survey of India
(Headquarter is at Kolkata)
 Indian Bureau of Mines (Headquarter at Nagpur) and
 Non-Ferrous Material Technology Development Centre (NFTDC) located at Hyderabad.
 The Ministry of Mines is responsible for the administration of all mines and minerals
(Development and Regulation Act, 1957)

Metallic Minerals
Iron ore
 Iron ore is the most widely distributed elements of the earth crust, rarely occurs in a
free state
 Karnataka alone contributes about 72% of magnetite deposits of India.
 Jharkhand is the leading producer of iron ore with 25% the country’s production.
 Iron ores found at Kanjamalai in Tamil Nadu.
 China is the world’s largest producer of gold.

 Karnataka is the largest producer of gold in India
 It is the most important mineral for making iron and steel. Nearly 10 kg manganese is
required for manufacturing one ton of steel
 MOIL- Manganese Ore India Limited-Nagpur
 The largest deposits of manganese, is found in Odisha.
 South Africa is the world’s leading producer of manganese
 Largest reserves of copper ore is in the state of Rajasthan
 Jharkand is the largest producer of copper with 62% of India’s production.
 Chile is the world’s number one country in the production of copper.
 The main bauxite deposits occur in Odisha
 National Aluminium Company Limited, abbreviated as NALCO, (incorporated 1981)
 Australia is the world’s leading bauxite producer.
 Mexico is the world’s leading silver producer
 Like gold, silver also resists corrosion.
Non-Metallic Minerals
 In ancient time, Mica was used in ayurvedic medicine.
 Abhrak is Good quality mica.
 China is the world’s top producer of mica.
 About 95 per cent of India’s mica is found in just three states of Andhra Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Jharkhand.

Lime Stone
 Limestone is associated with rocks composed of either calcium carbonate or the double
carbonate of calcium and magnesium or mixture of both
 China produces more than half of limestone production in the world

Rajasthan produces 82% of the country’s production

Non-Renewable Energy

 Coal is an inflammable organic substance composed mainly of hydrocarbons.
 Coal is available in the form of sedimentary rocks
 It is a valuable one, it is called as “Black Gold”
 Based on carbon content, it is classified into the following types.
1. Anthracite: contains 80 to 90% carbon
2. Bituminous: contains 60 to 80% carbon
3. Lignite: contains 40 to 60% carbon
4. Peat: contains less than 40% carbon
 The states of Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh alone account for
nearly 90% of coal reserves of the country.
 Jharkhand is the largest coal producing state in the country
 Coal India Limited – kolkata

Petroleum (or) Crude oil

 The word petroleum has been derived from two Latin words petro (meaning – Rock) and
oleum (meaning oil).
 Petroleum is an inflammable liquid that is composed of hydrocarbons which constitute
 90-95% of petroleum and the remaining is chiefly organic compounds containing
oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and traces of organ metallic compounds.
 Mumbai high oil fields (largest 65%)
 Digboi oil feilds (oldest fields in country)

Natural Gas
 Natural gas usually accompanies the petroleum accumulations.
 It is naturally occurring hydro carbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but
commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and sometimes a small
percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphides.
 Gail (India) Limited (GAIL) (formerly known as Gas Authority of India Limited)
 It is headquartered in New Delhi.
 The Gas Authority of India Ltd [GAIL] is doing pioneer work in the field of natural
 Gas exploration. Discovery of gas made rapid strides in the 1985.
 Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be
used in place of gasoline, diesel fuel and propane/LPG


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