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TNPSC Free Notes Polity In English -Local Government

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Local Government

Meaning of Local Self Government
 Local Self-Governments are institutions that look after the administration of an
area or a small community such as a village, a town or a city.
 Local Self- Government operates at the lowest level of society. It works at the grass
root level, close to the people, touching their everyday life.
 Local Self-Government is the management of local affairs by such local bodies which
have been elected by the local people. These local bodies provide services to the local
community as well as act as an instrument of democratic self-government.

Historical Background
 The idea of local self-government is a very old concept in India. It was at its peak under
the later Cholas or the Imperial Cholas of Tanjore. There are historical records of
references to local self-government under the Mauryan administration.
 Local self-government existed throughout the country with its own diverse
characteristics of ancient India. During the medieval period, local self-government had
somewhat declined due to the onslaught of feudalism.
 It was revived during the British period in the last quarter of the 19 th century, with the
Western orientation of training in democracy with Lord Ripon’s Resolution in 1882. Lord
Ripon was known as the ‘Father of Local Government’ for laying the foundations of local
self-governments in modern times.
 Under the Government of India Act, 1935 provincial autonomy was introduced. This Act
came into force in 1937. In the provinces where the Congress formed its Government,

rural development received special attention. It was an essential part of Gandhi’s
programme that Panchayat Raj institutions would be built from villages to the highest
 After Independence, the Gandhian ideal of Grama Swaraj (Village Republic) greatly
influenced the constitution makers. India being the land of villages, the creation of
village panchayats became a social movement.
Lord Ripon
 Lord Ripon was the one who gave Indians the first taste of freedom by introducing the
Local Self Government in 1882.
 Ripon took some steps towards liberalising the administration in India. He formulated
the local Government and made it clear that he was advocating for the decentralisation
of administration.
 He tried to remove obstacles in the sphere of Local Self-government by his resolution of
1882. He led a series of enactments in which larger powers of the local self-government
were given to the rural and urban bodies and the elected people received wider rights.
Local Self Governments since Independence
 The conceptualisation of the system of local self-government in India took place through
the formation and effort of four important committees from the year 1957 to 1986.
 The Community Development Programme (1952) and National Extension Service (1953)
became a basis for ‘The Great Charter on Panchayat Raj’ in 1957.

Committees and Recommendations

Salient Features of the 73 rd and 74 th Constitution Amendment Acts (1992)
 Basic Units of Democratic System – Grama Sabhas (Villages) and Ward Committees
(Municipalities) comprising all the adult members registered as voters.
 Three-tier system of panchayats at village, intermediate block/taluk/mandal and
district levels. Two-tier for smaller states with population below 2 million.
 Seats at all levels filled by direct elections.
 Seats reserved for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and chairpersons of the Panchayats at all
levels also shall be reserved for SCs and STs in proportion to their population.
 One-third of the total number of seats are reserved for women. One-third of the seats
are reserved for SCs, and STs are also reserved for women. One-third of offices of
chairpersons at all levels are reserved for women.
 Uniform five year term and elections to constitute new bodies to be completed before
the expiry of the term. In the event of dissolution, elections must be held compulsorily
within six months.
Problems and Challenges in the Local Self Governments

 Local self-governments are the crucial basis for our democracy. The Constitutional
status of local self governments adds more significance to their functioning.
 There are, however, a few critical concerns in the working of local self governments in
Major problems and challenges are mentioned as below:
 Lack of clear demarcation of powers and functions of local bodies.
 Allocation of funds and needs assessment are not matched.
 Role of caste, class and religion in decision- making at the local self governments.
 Poor accountability of elected members and officials at the grass root levels of
Classification of local government institutions
 Local governments are classified as Rural and Urban based local governments.
 The Rural and Urban divide is made based on the nature of the occupation of the
residents viz; agriculture based or non-agriculture based occupations.
 The agriculture based occupation means that almost or most of the residents of an area
are engaged in agriculture related occupation and the nature of the functions normally
would be farming, dairying, poultry, and other similar types of activities.
 Whereas, in urban areas, the citizens would be engaged in industrial, trade and
business, and other activities.
 The urban areas are the places where the people’s livelihood is based on occupations in
industry, trade, commercial institutions and administration like government offices and
private company offices.
 The urban areas are the link between the outside world to the local villages. The local
governments formed in rural and urban areas are called rural local governments and
urban local governments, respectively.
 In India, the rural local governments have given general name “Panchayati Raj” which
means the system of Panchayat institutions, that is, the institutions which does the
panchayat, (deliberate, discuss, and deliberate).
 The Urban local governments in India are classified into various types depending upon
the political and economic basis of the formation of the urban local governments such
as, Municipal Corporations, Townships, Area Planning Committees, and Cantonment
 For example, in India, the urban local governments are classified into various types
such as Municipal Corporations in metropolitan cities, Municipalities in small towns,
Townships in industrial towns, Cantonment Boards in military establishments.
Types of Urban Local bodies

 Municipal Corporations
 Municipalities
 Townships
 Town Panchayats
 Cantonment Boards


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