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# TNPSC Free Notes Physics In English – Calorimeter

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

### Calorimeter

A calorimeter is a device used to measure the amount of heat gained or lost by a substance.
Specific Heat Capacity:
 The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 o C or 1
K.
 The SI unit of specific heat capacity is Jkg -1 K -1

Thermal Heat Capacity:
 Heat capacity or thermal capacity is defined as the amount of heat energy required to
raise the temperature of a body by 1°C .
 SI unit is J/K.

Fundamental Laws of Gases:
 Boyle’s Law
 Charles’s law

Boyle’s law:
When the temperature of a gas is kept constant, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely
proportional to its pressure.P α 1/V
Charles’s law (The law of volume):
 Charles’s law was formulated by a French scientist Jacques Charles.
 When the pressure of gas is kept constant, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to
the temperature of the gas.V α T

 At constant pressure and temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to
number of atoms or molecules present in it.V α n
 Ideal gas equation, also called as equation of state is PV = RT.
 Here, R is known as universal gas constant whose value is 8.31 J mol −1 K −1 .

Nucleus:
 Discovered by Earnest Rutherford in 1911.
 By scattering of alpha particle experiment.
 Nucleus (neutrons and protons).
 The mass of a proton is 1836 times the mass of the electron.
 The mass of a neutron is slightly greater than the mass of the proton and it is equal to
1.6749×10 −27 kg.

Composition of nucleus:
 The neutrons are electrically neutral (q = 0) and the protons have positive charge (q=+e)
equal in magnitude of the charge of the electron (q = –e).
 The number of protons = Atomic number (Z).
 The number of neutrons = Neutron number (N).
 Neutrons + protons = mass number (A). Hence, A = Z+N.
 A nucleus of an element is represented as Z X A

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