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TNPSC Free Notes History – Social and political life

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Social and political life  


  • Harappans were great traders. 
  • They used carts with spokeless solid wheels.
  • Standardised weights and measures were used by them. They used sticks with marks to measure length.
  • Lothal is situated on the banks of a tributary of Sabarmati river in Gujarat. There is evidence for extensive maritime trade with Mesopotamia.
  • Indus Seals have been found as far as Mesopotamia (Sumer) which are modern-day Iraq, Kuwait and parts of Syria. 

Social Life

  • The dress of both men and women consisted of two pieces of cloth, one upper garment and the other lower garment.
  • Beads were worn by men and women
  • Jewelleries such as bangles, bracelets, fillets, girdles, anklets, ear-rings and finger rings were worn by women.
  • These ornaments were made of gold, silver, copper, bronze and semi precious stones.
  • Various household articles made of pottery, stone, shells, ivory and metal have been found at Mohenjo-Daro.
  • Spindles, needles, combs, fishhooks, knives are made of copper.
  • Fishing was a regular occupation while hunting and bull fighting were other pastimes.
  • There were numerous specimens of weapons of war such as axes, spearheads, daggers, bows, arrows made of copper and bronze.


  • The seals from various media such as steatite, copper, terracotta and ivory are frequently found in the Harappan sites.
  • Square type seals are engraved with carved animals and inscriptions.
  • Hundreds of rectangular seals were discovered here. It engraved with inscriptions only.
  • Pictographic writings were written on them.


  • The Harappan script has still to be fully deciphered. 
  • The number of signs is between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. 
  • The script was mostly written from right to left. 
  • In a few long seals the boustrophedon method – writing in the reverse direction in alternative lines – was adopted.
  • Parpola and his Scandinavian colleagues came to the conclusion that the language of the Harappans was Dravidian.
  • The mystery of the Harappan script still exists and there is no doubt that the decipherment of Harappan script will throw much light on this culture


Religion & Decline


    • The Indus people worshipped nature. 
    • They worshipped pipal trees. 
    • Some of the terracotta figures resemble the mother Goddess(which symbolized fertility).
    • Fire altars have been identified at Kalibangan. 
    • The Indus people buried the dead. 
  • Burials were done elaborately and evidence for cremation has also been found.

Pasupathi Shiva

  • The chief male deity was Pasupati, (proto-Siva) represented in seals as sitting in a yogic posture.
  • He has three faces and two horns.
  • He is surrounded by four animals (elephant, tiger, rhino, and buffalo- each facing a different direction). 
  • Two deer appear on his feet.
  • In latter times, Linga worship was prevalent.


Burial Methods

  • The cemeteries discovered around the cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Kalibangan, Lothal and Rupar throw light on the burial practices of the Harappans.
  • Complete burial and post-cremation burial were popular at Mohenjodaro.
  • They buried the dead with Head facing north direction.
  • At Lothal the burial pit was lined with burnt bricks indicating the use of coffins.
  • However, there is no clear evidence for the practice of Sati

Decline of the Harappan Culture

  • There is no unanimous view pertaining to the cause for the decline of the Harappan culture.
  • By 1900 BCE, the Harappan culture had started declining. It is assumed that the civilisation met with
  • repeated floods
  • ecological changes
  • invasions (Aryans)
  • natural calamity
  • climatic changes
  • deforestation
  • an epidemic
  • In course of time, the people shifted to the southern and eastern directions from the Indus region.
  • The destruction of forts is mentioned in the Rig Veda.
  • It did not completely disappear.
  • It continued as rural culture.

Iron Age in Tamilnadu

  • It is contemporary to Indus Civilization.
  • The archaeological evidence points to several groups of people living in Tamil Nadu and South India continuously from the Mesolithic period.
  • One cannot rule out the migration of a few groups from the Indus region
  • The graffiti found on the megalithic burial pots of South India and the place names presented are cited to establish the relationship between Indus and Tamil cultures.
  • A circular tomb using big stone slabs built upon the place of burial is known as a megalith.



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