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TNPSC Free Notes History – Sites of Indus valley Civilization

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.


Sites of Indus valley Civilization 

The most important Sites were

  • Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan)
  • Mohenjo-Daro (Sindh, Pakistan)
  • Dholavira (Gujarat, India)
  • Lothal (Gujarat, India)
  • Surkotada (Gujarat, India)
  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan, India)
  • Banawali (Rajasthan, India)
  • Rakhigarhi (Haryana, India)


Unique Features of Harappan Civilisation

Town planning is a unique feature of the Indus Civilisation. The Harappan city had two planned areas.


Streets and Houses

  • The streets are observed to have a grid pattern. They were straight running from north to south and east to west and intersected each other at right angles. 
  • The roads were wide with rounded corners. 
  • Houses were built on both sides of the street. The houses were either one or two storeys.
  • Most of the houses had many rooms, a courtyard and a well. Each house had toilets and bathrooms. 
  • The houses were built using baked bricks and mortar. Sun-dried bricks were also used. Most of the bricks were of uniform size. 
  • Roofs were flat. 
  • There is no conclusive evidence of the presence of palaces or places of worship. 
  • Burnt Bricks are strong, hard, durable, resistant to fire and will not dissolve in water or rain.

The Great Bath 

  • The great bath was a large, rectangular tank in a courtyard. It may be the earliest example of a water-proof structure. 
  • The bath was lined with bricks, coated with plaster and made water-tight using layers of natural bitumen. 
  • There were steps on the north and south leading into the tank. There were rooms on three sides. 
  • Water was drawn from the well located in the courtyard and drained out after use.

Drainage System

  • Many of these cities had covered drains. The drains were covered with slabs or bricks. 
  • Each drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow. 
  • Holes were provided at regular intervals to clear the drains.

The Great Granary

  • The granary was a massive building with a solid brick foundation.
  • Granaries were used to store food grain. 
  • The remains of wheat, barley, millets, sesame and pulses have been found there.
  • A granary with walls made of mud bricks, which are still in a good condition, has been discovered in Rakhigarhi, a village in Haryana, belonging to Mature Harappan Phase.

Discovered Sites 

Place  Year  Inventor  River
Harappa  1921 DayaRam Sahni   Ravi
Mohenjodaro 1922  R.D Banerjee   Sindh
Chanhudaro   1931   MG Majumdar  Sindh
Lothal  1945 S R Rao   Pogavo
Kalibangan  1961 Lal Ghaggar
Dholavira 1991  Joshi   Saraswati 




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